Central Valley

Chinese, Tehama, Glenn, Colusa, Lake, Yolo, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, Fresno, Kings, Kern


Colusa County

Briggs Chinese Business Area. Colusa County.
The Chinese business area of the town of Briggs was on California Street between Broadway and Commercial Street. There were two laundries in 1884. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map
1884a.

Colusa Chinatown, Colusa County.
During the 1870's, Colusa Chinatown stretched down Main Street from Fifth Street to Tenth
Street, in the Ci
ty of Colusa. A fire on July 12, 1877 destroyed an entire block between Seventh Street and Eighth Street. Brick buildings soon took their place. Another fire on January 13, 1879,burned more of the wooden structures. Several brick buildings of Colusa Chinatown are still in existence as is the Tree of Heaven. Reference: "Valley Chinatowns" 1972: 30-31.

Fresno County

Bing Kong Tong Association Building, Fresno County.
Bing Kong Tong Association building at 923 China Alley, City of Fresno, is one of two
association buildings remaining in Fresno Chinato
wn. Built in 1900, it was a meeting place, host to Chinese opera performances, speeches, etc. See Bow On Tong Association Building, Fresno County; Fresno Chinatown, Fresno County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1978a.

Bow On Tong Association Building, Fresno County.
Bow On Tong building provides evidence of organizations that were prominent in Fresno
Chinatown. The structure, located a
t 923 F Street, City of Fresno, appears as two, having been
modified since its construction in 1920. See Bing Kong Tong Association Building, Fresno County; Fresno Chinatown, Fresno County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1978b.

China Alley, Fresno County.
China Alley is on Kern Street, City of Fresno. A plaque placed by the Jim Savage Chapter, E. Clampus Vitus states, "In 1874 600 people moved to what is now Fresno. Of those, 200 were Chinese, who made the brick and helped start the building of Fresno. A short time later, they were persuaded to settle west of the train tracks. They built an area of shops, which catered to all ethnic backgrounds. It was a thriving area that offered goods, services, and "entertainment" day and night. It was the cosmopolitan area of Fresno for many years and to this day this area still has influence on the city. The brick used here came from an eighty-plus year-old church torn down in the 1970's and is thought to have been made by the Chinese settlers." See Fresno Chinatown, Fresno County. 

 China Peak, Fresno County.
The 8,709 feet above sea level peak was named in honor of Charlie Lee, a Chinese cowboy. Lee was 11 years old when he arrived in the Fresno area in 1873. He was taken in by the Blasingame family, with whom he spent the next 63 years. During that time, he became an accomplished cattleman and mountaineer. When Joseph N. LeConte, Professor of Geology at University of California Berkeley, began research on the Sierra Nevada Mountains, he hired Lee as his guide. Their friendship grew through the years with LeConte officially naming the peak in Lee's honorBy 1958, a downhill snow ski facility had developed on the flank of the mountain and it was known as China Peak Ski Resort. The facility's name changed to Sierra Summit in the 1970salthough the peak itself retained its original name. Reference: Rose 1985; Rose 1994: 127. 

China Peak Ski Resort, Fresno County. 
See China Peak, Fresno County.

China Slough, Fresno County. .China Slough is a small body of water parallel to Kings River in China Creek Park. See China Creek Park, Fresno County. 

Coalinga Chinese Business Area, Fresno County.
The Chinese business area in the town of Coalinga was on the north side of F Street between Third Street and Fourth Street in 1909. It had one laundry and one dwelling. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1909.

Del Rey China Town. Fresno County.
Del Rey China Town (two words), community of Del Rey, was on the south side of the railroad tracks between Second Street and Third Street. It had nine structures, some of which were occupied by Japanese by December 1917. The Chinatown was gone by 1929. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1917, 1929.

Fresno Chinatown, Fresno County.
Fresno Chinatown began in 1873 with the arrival of the railroad in Fresno and was marked by the construction of a general merchandise building by Tong Duck and Tong Sing. The building was the first made of brick in Fresno. Located on the west side of Fresno near the railroad tracksFresno Chinatown encompassed a four square block area by 1881. A population of 171 lived in the community that spanned China Alley, G Street, Kern Street and Mariposa Street. Fresno Chinatown was closely associated with gambling, prostitution and rowdiness, although most of its residents worked as laborers, building such structures as the county courthouse, while others worked on farms throughout the area. Reaching a maximum population of about 1,100 in 1900it soon decreased in size and various ethnic groups moved into the area. See China Alley, Fresno County; Millerton Chinatown, Fresno County. Reference: Chacon 1988: 371, 373-374; Ng 1994: 154-155

Fresno Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association/Kong Chow Monument, Fresno County.
The monument is located on G Street between Kern Street and Tulare Street in Fresno Chinatown. It is a rock sculpture with plaques at its base-one in Chinese, the other in English:"The original site of the first Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association and Kong ChoTemple, circa 1880. Plaque dedicated June 1984." The site is presently a public parking lot. See Fresno Chinatown, Fresno County. 

Millerton Chinatown, Fresno County.
Twelve Chinese members of the Sue An Company established a mining claim on the San Joaquin River about a mile from Fort Miller (Millerton) in 1861. By 1870, the population had increased to about 300. The Chinese worked as laborers in nearby mines and on construction projects, but a decrease in mining activity and the arrival of the railroad in Fresno prompted many to move to Fresno Chinatown. This, combined with the move of the county seat froMillerton to Fresno, caused the Chinatown to be abandoned. See Fresno Chinatown, Fresno County. Reference: Chacon 1988: 372-373; Opper and Lew 1975: 47-48. 

Selma Chinatown, Fresno County.
Selma Chinatown was located along West Front Street below McCall Avenue to the C & Canal. Chinese were actually the first people to live at the Selma site because of their railroawork there, living in railroad quarters where the town eventually developed. In 1893, the Chinesof Selma Chinatown experienced anti-Chinese activity when approximately 40 non-Chinese invaded their community. The mob stole and damaged property, gathered the Chinese into group and marched them out of Selma. Law enforcement officers were able to stop the mass kidnapping with 12 people being arrested. The Chinese sued the city for damages done by th
mob. The end of Selma Chinatown was marked by the death of its last resident, Wong Kee who died on April 7, 1945. Reference: McFarland 1980: 74,249-250.

Zapato Chino Canyon, Fresno County.
Zapato Chino Canyon is often translated as Canyon of the Chinese Shoe, for a Chinese shoe was reportedly found there. The canyon, about six miles east of Coalinga, is steep-sided with Zapato Chino Creek flowing through it. It was necessary to cross the canyon when traveling El Camino Viejo. El Camino Viejo, or the Old Los Angeles Trail as it is also known, led from San Pedro to present-day Oakland through the San Joaquin Valley. Water pools within the canyon made it a favorite resting place for Spanish travelers in the early 1800's. A Native American village in the canyon became an agricultural site for Spanish and Mexican families. Euro American settlers eventually established businesses there. However, a flood in 1862 destroyed the pools. The canyon continued as a sheep-shearing center through the 1890's. Reference: Hoover 1966: 134.

Zapato Chinos Creek, Fresno County.  
Zapato Chino Creek flows through Zapato Chino Canyon. See Zapato Chino Canyon, Fresno
Canyon.



Glenn County

Canton Street, Glenn County.
Canton Street was an eastward extension of Cedar Street in Willows. It was the main road of
Willows Chinatown. See Willows Chinatown, Glenn County. Reference: "Valley Chinatowns"
1972: 30.

Newville Chinatown, Glenn County.
Newville Chinatown was a part of the small community called Newville. Today, the Tree of
Heaven is all that remains of either place. Reference: Baker 1968: 70.

Orland Chinatown, Glenn County.
Orland Chinatown dates to the 1880's and was still a viable community in 1912. It was located
across the railroad tracks on the west side of Highway 99 at about Tehama Street in the town of
Orland. The area was originally a part of Colusa County until deeded to Glenn County in 1891.
Today, only the Tree of Heaven resides there. Reference: "Valley Chinatowns" 1972: 29;
Wigmore 1955: 14, 16-17, 35.

Willows Chinatown, Glenn County.

Willows Chinatown was initially next to the Central Canal, east of the railroad tracks along
Canton Street. It was relocated northward along the canal on the east side of Colusa Street
between Oak Street and Walnut Street. There were four laundries and six dwellings by 1894. Failure of the rice crop in the winter of 1920 accelerated the decline of Willows Chinatown. See Canton Stree
t Glenn County. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1894b; "Valley Chinatowns" 1972: 29-30
Western Kern County
Bakersfield Chinatown, Western Kern County.
Although some Chinese were already in the City of Bakersfield by the 1870's, it was not until
then that great number began settling there. This was prompted by a decrease in mining activity and the completion of railroad construction in the area. By 1885, there was a thriving Chinatown located between 20th Street and 22nd Street and K Street and L Street. It had more than 30 merchant stores, herb shops, restaurants and two banks. By 1902, disputes between the Sam Yup and Sze Yup people had grown to the point where the Sze Yup moved and established a separate Chinese community. It was located along 18th Street. The two Chinatowns merged as the communities grew. Fires, demolition of substandard buildings and the earthquake of 1952 marked the end of the larger Chinatown. See China Alley, Western Kern County. Reference: Hoy 1950: 1-3; Ogden 1974: 4-7.
Bakersfield Chinese Cemetery, Western Kern County.
Bakersfield Chinese Cemetery was located on Terrace Way in the City of Bakersfield in the early 1900's. Covering five acres, it featured a ceremonial shrine where offerings were made. The shrine consisted of a Buddha figure seated behind a small white carved door in the center of the altar. As in other early Chinese cemeteries, the deceased were only temporarily buried, their bones being disinterred and returned to China. The cemetery and the few whose bones had not been returned to China were moved in 1956 to Sixth Street and Tulare Street, City of
Bakers
field. It is a small plot of land with an ornate gate, altar, plaque and the few graves are
ma
rked but unidentified. The location is not an active burial site. Reference: Ogden 1974: 24-25. Photo.
Bakersfield Confucius Church, Western Kern County. ,
Located at 22nd Street and N Street in the City of Bakersfield, the Confucius Church functioned as a school. It offered instruction in the Chinese language and music, Confucian morals and customs along with physical education. It was built in 1949. Reference: Ogden 1974: 14.
Calvin Street, Western Kern County.
The farm operated by Sing Lum's father, Joseph (Woo) Lum in the City of Bakersfield, was
subdi
vided for residential housing and family members' first names were used as street names. For example, Calvin Street was named after Calvin, one of Sing Lurn's two sons. See Elaine Street, Western Kern County; Lum Avenue, Western Kern County; Norman Street, Western Kern County; Sing Lum Elementary School, Western Kern County. Reference: Wong 1987: 103. Photo. 
China Alley, Western Kern County.
China Alley was the center of the original Chinatown that developed in the 1870's in the City of Bakersfield. By the mid 1870's, the Chinatown had a population of about 1,000. A fire,
demolition of older buildings and the earthquake of 1952 marked the end of Bakersfield
                      Chinatown. The city officially designated the alley as a Historic City Site in 1993. A commemorative plaque was erected in 1994. Reference: Campbell l992; Hoy 1950: 2. Photo. 

China Canal, Western Kern County.
Located about 35 miles north of the City of Bakersfield, China Canal received its name because of the Chinese workers used in its construction. It consisted of more than 40 miles of ditches with one 500 foot-long tunnel being dug through granite. The project began in 1888 when a petition was presented to Kern County for the establishment of an irrigation district using the Poso Creek drainage area water for an irrigation district of approximately 40,000 acres. Construction began in 1890. However, before it could be put into service, portions washed out, litigation began and financial problems arose. All this, combined with sabotage, ended the projectReference: Darling 1988: 134; Jacks 1990: 15.

China Grade, Western Kern County.Using a trail made by Chinese firewood peddlers in the City of Bakersfield during the 1870'sother Chinese would walk down the bluffs overlooking the Kern River to retrieve watercress. The plant is a vegetable that makes a flavorful addition to soup and is thought to cool the body when used in that manner. By 1900, the Chinese had established vegetable gardens at the base of the cliffs, carrying the produce to town using the path. Steps were cut into the foot path with it becoming a dirt road that was eventually paved and named for the Chinese pioneers. See China Grade Loop, Western Kern County. Reference: Darling 1988: 26; Hoy 1950: 1; Wong 1987: 91- 92. Photo.

China Grade Loop, Western Kern County.Urban development in the northern portion of the City of Bakersfield during the 1960's resulted in an east-west street being built that intersected China Grade. Thus, a loop of connecting streets was formed. The new street became China Grade Loop while the older portion of China Grade was renamed China Grade Loop. See China Grade, Western Kern County.

China Peak Way, Western Kern County.China Peak Way is a street name found in a City of Bakersfield residential housing tract built in the 1970's. All street names in the tract are taken from famous mountains. See China Peak, Fresno County.

Delano Chinese Business Area, Western Kern County.The Chinese business area in the town of Delano was west of the railroad tracks on G Street between Tulare Street and Mariposa Street in June 1892. It had two laundries, one dwelling and one bakery. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1892a.

Elaine Street, Western Kern County.
Elaine Street in the City of Bakersfield is named in honor Elaine, a daughter of Sing Lum. See Calvin Street, Western Kern County; Lum Avenue, Western Kern County; Norman Street, Western Kern County; Sing Lum Elementary School, Western Kern County. Reference: Wong 1987: China Grade, Western Kern County.  Photo.                       
Kern County Museum, Western Kern County.
Western Kern County Museum at 3801 Chester Avenue, City of Bakersfield, has a reconstructed
joss house in the outdoor portion of the museum. See Pioneer Park Joss House
, Western Kern
County.
Let Sing Gong Temple, Western Kern County.
Let Sing Gong Temple, located at 701 18th StreetCity of Bakersfield, possibly dates to the 1860's. It was owned by the Bing Kong Association and housed five deities: Kuan Yin, Goddess of Mercy; Kuan Yu (Kwan Kung)God of War and Valor; Hua To, God of Medicine; Pei Ti (Bok Kai), God of the North and Liang Ma (Lung Mu), God of Mystic Power, A brick structure replaced the earlier wooden building in the 1890's. However, the brick building was destroyed by the 1952 earthquake. The temple was again rebuilt using cement blocks. The deities were removed and the building sold in the early 2000's. Reference: Ogden 1974: 9-10; Wells 1962: 64-65.  Photo.
Lum Avenue, Western Kern County.
Lum Avenue was named after Joseph (Woo) Lum, a prominent farmer in the City of Bakersfie1d.
The road leading to his farm was informally known as Lum Road. When the 40-acre farm was
subdivided, Lum's prominence was commemorated by the placename, although the road became
an avenue because of its east-west orientation. See Cal
vin Street, Western Kern County; Elaine
Street, Kern County
; Norman Street, Western Kern County; Sing Lum Elementary School,
Western Kern County. Reference: "Field Notes of Bakersfield" 1972
: Ogden 1974: 17. Photo.
Lum Road, Western Kern County.
Lum Road in the City of Bakersfield was an unpaved road that later became officially designated
Lum Avenue. See Lum Avenue, Western Kern County.
Ming Avenue, Western Kern County.
Ming Leong Yen worked on the Tehachapi Loop portion of the Atchinson-Topeka Santa Fe
Railroad in the early 1870's and moved to Bakersfield in 1874
. He developed extensive farm
holdings and was often called the "Potato King
." The east-west trending, unpaved road to his
farm house was known locally as Ming Road. As
.commercial and residential development
occurred in the area, it was eventually paved and officially designated as Ming Avenue, a name
more appropriate to its east-west orientation
. Reference: Ming 1992; Ogden 1974: 17. Photo.
Ming Lake, Western Kern County.
Like so many lakes in California, this one is not a natural body of water. Rather, it is an artificial
water reservoir available for public boating use. It was named after Floyd Ming, a prominent
Euro American rancher, land developer and county supervisor of Kern County. He was of
Norwegian ancestry. Reference:
Bakersfield Californian 1975.
Norman Street, Western Kern County.
Norman Street in the City of Bakersfield is named after a son of Sing Lum. See Calvin Street,
Western Kern County; Elaine Street, Western Kern County; Sing Lum Elementary School,
Western Kern County. Reference: Wong 1987: 103. Photo.                        
Pioneer Park Joss House, Western Kern County.
The 1880's Pioneer Park Joss House is a reproduction of the wooden version of the Suey On
Association building that was located on L Street and China Alley in Bakersfield Chinatown
.
The park in which the joss house sits is a collection of historic buildings and is part of the Kern
County Museum. See China Alley, Western Kern County; Kern County Museum
, Western Kern
County; Suey On Association Building, Western Kern County. Photo.
Sam Yup Association Temple, Western Kern County.
Sam Yup Association Temple was located on one of three lots acquired from Colonel Thomas
Baker by Sue Hee. Sue Hee was an early Chinese settler in Bakersfield who gave a vacant lot to
the Sam Yup Association for the construction of a temple and meeting place in the late 1870's.
The association was the first in Bakersfield and the building
's location helped form the nucleus
of the community's original Chinatown. See Bakersfield Chinatown, Western Kern County.
Reference: Orfila 1995, El
.
Sing Lum Day Care Center, Western Kern County.
Sing Lum Day Care Center is on the north side of Sing Lum Elementary School in the City of
Bakersfield. It was named in recognition of Sing Lum
, who had been active in public education.
See Sing Lum Elementary School, Western Kern County
.
Sing Lum Elementary School, Western Kern County.
Sing Lum, a son of Joseph (Woo) Lum, became very active in educational matters in and around
Bakersfield. He served as Clerk of the Stine School District and helped form the Panama School
District in the 1940's
. He also served on the Board of Trustees of the Panama Unified School
District
. A new elementary school constructed in 1984 in the southwestern portion of Bakersfield
was named after him as recognition of his many years of service. Attached to the school is a day
care facility also named in his honor
. A lifetime of competitive running saw Sing Lum become
the fastest man over 70 years of age in the 100 and 200-meter race and a gold medal winner in
the 8O year-old and over division of the races. He was elected to the Bob Elias Hall of Fame. His
passing away in 1994 prompted lengthy eulogies on local television newscasts
. See Calvin Street,
Western Kern County; Elaine Street, Western Kern County; Lum Avenue, Kern County; Norman
Street, Western Kern County, Sing Lum Day Care Center, Western Kern County
. Reference:
Bakersfield Californian 1994; Wong 1987: 103-104. Photo.
Suey On Association Building, Western Kern County.
The Suey On Association Building was also known as The Joss House. It stood at L Street and
China Alley in Bakersfield Chinatown
. It gained wide spread notoriety because of a gun battle
between an infamous local bandit and the marshals that took place there. The bandit lost the
shootout and the structure no longer exists. See Pioneer Park Joss House, Western Kern County;
China Alley
, Western Kern County.
Ying On Benevolent Association Building, Western Kern County.
The Ying On Benevolent Association building is at 2110 L Street, City of Bakersfield. The
building is a modem style. It replaced an older structure that had been a landmark in
the Bakersfield Chinatown. See Bakersfield Chinatown, Western Kern County.

Kings County
Armona China Town, Kings County.
Armona China Town (two words) in the City of Armona was centered around Shanghai Lane
and Hong Kong
Alley. By April 1925, it had about 30 dwellings, two grocery stores, one general merchandise store, one restaurant, one meat market and a joss house. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1925.
China Alley, Kings County.
China Alley is the main street of the remainder of Hanford Chinatown. Lined on both sides with brick buildings, it provides a turn-of-the-century view of a former Chinese residential and
business area
. See Hanford Taoist Temple, Kings County; L. T. Sue Herb Company, Kings
Count
y. Reference: The Historic Taoist Temple: Hanford, California, n.d.; Hoover 1966: 137. 
Hanford Chinatown, Kings County.  
Centered on China Alley, the remains of Hanford Chinatown in the City of Hanford are well
preser
ved. See China Alley, Kings County; Hanford Taoist Temple, Kings County; Imperial
D
ynasty Restaurant Building, Kings County; L.T. Sue Herb Company, Kings County.
Hanford Chinese Cemetery, Kings County.
Located on 10th Avenue south of Hanford Cemetery in the City of Hanford, Hanford Chinese
Cemeter
y is behind Potter's Field. The Sam Yup and Sze Yup associations used the
cemetery
, each having its own section. There is only one headstone remaining. Reference:
Minnick 1999a
Photo.
Hanford Chinese Language School Building, Kings County.
The Hanford Chinese Language School building is located at 514 Visalia Street, City of HanfordWith a donation of land and financial support from the expanding Chinese community, the school opened in 1922. It closed its doors in the 1950's. Reference: Minnick 1999a.
Hanford Taoist Temple, Kings County.
The two-story brick building, constructed in 1893, is at No. 12 China Alley in the City of
Hanford. Owned by the Sam Yup Association, the first floor was a meeting place and provided housing for single men. The second story was used for religious purposes. By the late 1940's or early 1950s, the structure officially became The Taoist Temple. Presently, the building houses a gift shop and museum with a small garden in the rear. It is on the National Registry of Historic Places. See China Alley, Kings County. Reference: Minnick 1999; The Historic Taoist Temple:Hanford, California, n.d.
Imperial Dynasty Restaurant Building, Kings County.
Located at 406 China Alley, City of Hanford, Imperial Dynasty Restaurant building is one of the old structures in Hanford Chinatown. The restaurant itself is a five star establishment featuring European cuisine. At one time, it had the fifth largest wine cellar in the United States. See Hanford Chinatown, Kings County. Reference: Minnick 1999d.                

L.T. Sue Herb Company, Kings County.
The herb shop was the first and longest surviving herb company in the town of Hanford. Lok
Ting Sue, its founder, treated both Chinese and non-Chinese patients
. See China Alley, Kings
County. Reference: Wey 1988
: 133.

Lake County

California Borax Company, Lake County.
California Borax Company operated borax mines in Borax Lake (1864-1868) and Little Borax
Lake (1868-1873) nor
thwest of the town of Clear Lake. Chinese workers were the sole source
of labor
. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1980a.

Lake Port, Lake County.
The Chinese business area in the community of Lake Port was located between Third Street and Fourth Street, west of Clear Lake. It consisted of two laundries in 1885. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1885a.

Sulphur Bank Mine, Lake County.
The Sulphur Bank Mine near Clear Lake, was a significant source of quicksilver as early as 1874. As many as 600 of the 1000 workers at the mine were Chinese. The work was extremely hazardous with many Chinese being killed, often several at a time. When California passed restrictive legislation directed toward the Chinese, the mine owner challenged the laws with the court issuing a strong opinion that the legislation violated treaty agreements between China and the United States and the Fourteenth Amendment. Reference: Chinn 1967: 35; Wey 1988: 141- 142.

Way-Aft- Whyle, Lake County.

Way-Aft- Whyle is a small island in Clear Lake and was the site of Chinese vegetable gardening
in the 1880's. Supplies were taken to the island by boat with the produce being moved by boat
to the nearby town of Clear Lake where it was sold. Reference: Maudlin 1968: 19. 



Merced County

China Camp, Merced County.
Chinese workers who helped build irrigation canals throughout the Volta-Los Banos area during
the 1870's and 1880's lived in a settlement called China Camp. Once the canals were finished,
many residents found employment in railroad construction with the San Pablo and Tulare
Extension Railroad Company. The railroad reached the area around Volta in 1888
. Reference:
McDannold 1998: 12-13; Pimentel 1987: 61.

China Camp Road, Merced County.
China Camp Road lead into China Camp, the home of Chinese laborers during the 1870's and
1880's. See China Camp
, Merced County.

China Hat, Merced County.
The hill known as China Hat stands 698 feet above sea level. It is about four miles west of the Merced-Mariposa County border on the Merced and Hornitos Road and one and one-half miles due north of that point. It takes its name from its appearance, being similar to the conical hat worn by the Chinese. Reference: United States Geological Survey 1962.

China Slough, Merced County.
Chinese laborers dug a bypass for water from the San Joaquin River in the 1870's. It diverted water while a dam and water control gates were built as part of the irrigation system near the community of Firebaugh. Today, people refer to it as China Slough. Reference: Milliken 1961.

Chinese Trail, Merced County.
Chinese Trail was a footpath that leads through Plainsburg to Mormon Bar in Mariposa County. It roughly parallels today's State Highway 140. An eyewitness account dating from the 1880's tells of " ...long lines of Chinese jogging past (his) home on the trail. Each man carried two baskets of supplies for the mining area, the baskets being suspended from a pole carried across the shoulder. Anything from grindstones to food was carried in these baskets. The typical Chinese straw hat was part of each man's costume." See China Hat, Merced County. Reference: Clark 1972: 61.

Merced Chinatown, Merced County.
Merced Chinatown, City of Merced, was located between Sixteenth Street and Seventeenth Street and J Street in 1885. By 1875 there were about 100 residents. Continued growth resulted in a general store, herb store, laundry and temple by 1880. A new temple was constructed in 1885. Merced Chinatown, including the temple, was gone by the 1960's. See Oy Kuong Building, Merced County; Taoist Temple, Merced County. Reference: Bowman 1988: 149; Sanborn Insurance Map 1885.

Oy Kuong Building, Merced County.
Oy Kuong (Quong) building, constructed in 1925 at 245 Sixteenth Street in the town of Merced, was the site of the Oy Kuong (Quong) Laundry. The building is believed to be the last pre-1940 structure associated with the Chinese in Merced. See Merced Chinatown, Merced County; Taoist Temple, Merced County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1985.

Ralph Milliken Museum, Merced County.
Ralph Milliken Museum on Highway 152 in the town of Los Banos has Chinese artifacts and portraits of prominent Chinese Americans of Merced County.

Taoist Temple, Merced County.
There was a Taoist temple in Merced Chinatown in the 1880's. Although the temple itself was destroyed, several artifacts survived. Those items, and some from two other temples, were assembled into a reconstruction of the original temple's main altar room. The new room opened in 1983 and can be seen in the County Court House Museum of the City of Merced. See Merced Chinatown, Merced County; Oy Kuong Building, Merced County. Reference: Bowman 1988: 148-152; Bowman 1985b.

Woo Road, Merced County.

Woo Road is a two-mile long street that ran through Joseph Woo's farm. The road was named after him when he deeded it to the county so that it would be paved. The farm was in full operation by 1930. Bill and Roy, two of his sons, operated the farm growing grain, alfalfa and cotton. Roy was the first Chinese American to serve on the Board of Trustees of the Charleston Unified School District in Merced County. Reference: Clark 1972: 8-9; Milliken 1960: 138; Sousa, 1993; Woo, 1992.

                                                   Sacramento County

Alder Creek Memorial, Sacramento County.
Alder Creek Memorial just south of the junction of Highway 50 and Folsom Boulevard in the City of Folsom marks the site of early gold mining. A plaque at the site states, "Chinese immigrants came to Alder Creek in the 1850's to take part in the California gold rush. A Chinese community existed in this location until the early 1900's when the area was dredged for gold." Reference: Chan 1999.

Chinadom, Sacramento County.

Chinadom was the common name for Sacramento Chinatown in the early 1850's. See Sacramento Chinatown, Sacramento County. Reference: Praetzellis and Praetzellis 1982: 21.

China Hill, Sacramento County.

China Hill is located within Folsom State Prison in the City of Folsom. In the 1880's, Chinese
inmates grew vegetables on the hill within the main wall by terracing its slopes. The placename dates to that earl
y time. The Chinese and the prison have had a long association: Before there 'was a prison, Chinese miners worked the area, then known as Beam's Bar (Stony Bar); Chinese laborers assisted with the stone masonry of the prison's walls during its construction and the first inmate to enter the new prison was Chinese. Chong Hing of Canton was one of the initial five prisoners to be housed at the prison. Legend has it that the five chose who would be the first to enter the new facility by rolling dice. Chong Hing won, or lost, depending on how one sees the situation. He was Folsom Prisoner No.1. Presently, China Hill supports three flag poles and can be seen from the prison parking lot. Reference: Brown 1978: 14, 16, 17, 24; Docent 1999.

China Lake, Sacramento County.

The official name for the body of water in the City of Sacramento was Sutter Lake. Still, it was commonly known as China Lake or China Slough because of Sacramento Chinatown being located on its I Street bank. The term slough, rather than lake, is more appropriate because it was open to the Sacramento River. See Site of China Slough, Sacramento County. Reference:Jenkins 1966: 1-3; Minnick 1988: 12. 

Chinese Diggings, Sacramento County.

Although originally known as Chinese Diggings in the City of Folsom, a more proper term is Natoma Station Ground Sluices Chinese Diggings. See Natoma Station ground Sluices Chinese Diggings, Sacramento County.

Chinese Laborers Memorial Pavilion, Sacramento County.
Chinese Laborers Memorial Pavilion is in a city park within Isleton Chinatown in the community of Isleton. Dedicated in 1993, it commemorates the Chinese laborers who worked in the fields and canneries of the area. See Isleton, Sacramento County. Reference: Collier 1998.
Chung Wah Cemetery, Sacramento County.
Chung Wah Cemetery is located just south of Lakeside Memorial Lawn Cemetery near Mormon Street, City of Folsom. It was established in 1906 and used by the Sam Yup and Sze Yup.associations. The last burial occurred in 1946. Chung Wah Cemetery has been nominated for entry into the National Registry of Historic Places. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1995.
Courtland Chinatown, Sacramento County.
Courtland Chinatown, like the community of Courtland, was a center of activity for the Sacramento River fruit growing area. Residents were mostly Chungshanese from Kwangtong Province in China. Plagued by fires, Courtland Chinatown's fourth fire in 1930 destroyed most of it. After this final fire, the landowner refused to renew the land lease, resulting in many'residents relocating to Locke or Walnut Grove Chinatown. Eventually, Courtland Chinatown land was purchased by Lincoln Chan, becoming part of the Lincoln Chan Ranch. See Lincoln Chan Ranch, Sacramento County; Locke, Sacramento County; Walnut Grove Chinatown, Sacramento County. Reference: Chu 1970: 27-28; Leung 1984: 24-55; Yip 1971: 57.
Dai Loy Museum, Sacramento County.
Dai Loy (Big Welcome) Museum is located on Main Street in the town of Locke. The building that houses the museum was once a gambling hall. See Locke, Sacramento County.


Elk Grove Chinese Business Area, Sacramento County.
The Chinese business area of Elk Grove was east of the railroad tracks between Main Street and Locust Street in 1895. There were two laundries. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1895a.
Elliot Chinatown, Sacramento County.
Elliot Chinatown in the community of Elliot consisted of Chungshanese employed in nearby
orchards. A fire in 1885 destroyed Elliot Chinatown
, dispersing the Chinese. Reference: Arreola 1975: 9.
Folsom Chinese Cemetery, Sacramento County.
Folsom Chinese Cemetery is another name for Chung Wah Cemetery. See Chung Wah
Cemetery, Sacramento County.
Folsom Power House, Sacramento County.
The historic Folsom Power House displays a plaque erected by the community that notes the
importance of the Chinese in developing the power house and surrounding area. The power
house was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1981 and is California Historic Landmark No. 633. Reference
: Office of Historic Preservation 1990: 176

Fong Court, Sacramento County.
Fong Court, City of Folsom, dates to the early 1990's. The street was named in honor of all the deceased members of the Fong family who had lived in Folsom. Reference: Chan 1999.
Fong Street, Sacramento County.
When a new housing development was built in the City of Folsom during the 1990's, one of the streets was given the Fong name, in recognition of the Fong family of Folsom. Chan 1999. Photo.
Galt Chinese Business Area, Sacramento County.
The Chinese business area in the town of Galt was on the west side of Fifth Street between B Street and C Street. In March 1895, it had one laundry and one dwelling. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1895b.
Gun Ho American Legion Post No. 696, Sacramento County.
Gun Ho American Legion Post No.' 696 was originally located at 119 21st Street, City of Sacramento. It was in operation by the end of World War II and served the needs of Chinese American veterans, offering camaraderie and various programs designed to assist its members and the community. Although the post no longer has its own facilities, it is still active with the members meeting once a month in a local restaurant. Reference: Mrs. P. Leong 1999
Hakka Chinese Cemetery, Sacramento County.
This cemetery once was thought to be for Hakka Chinese. Due to the cemetery's land being traded and subsequently dredged, its exact location is unknown. However, it is known that its graves were relocated to Folsom Chinese Cemetery in 1906. See Chung Wah Cemetery, Sacramento County; Young Wo Cemetery, Sacramento County. Reference: Askin 1980: 7-9.
Isleton Asian American Historic District, Sacramento County.
Isleton Asian American Historic District is located in the town of Iselton. It is bounded by State Route 160 and Union Street and extends to E Street and H Street. Most of the 64 buildings face Main Street, its thoroughfare. Isleton's origin was prompted by the settlement of Chinese laborers who, in the 1870's, built the levees and developed the farmlands that characterize the region. By 1900, asparagus was a significant crop and the decreasing number of Chinese workers was augmented by Japanese. The Japanese took up residence in Isleton Chinatown, with F Street as a rather clear boundary between the two groups. A fire in 1926 destroyed much of the district with it being rebuilt in the architectural style of the time: false front commercial structures made of brick and wood frame buildings covered with stucco or pressed tin. F Street remained the boundary between the Chinese and Japanese sections. Isleton Asian American Historic District was identified in March 1991 and entered into the National Register of Historic Places. See Isleton Bing Kung Tong Building, Sacramento County; Chinese Laborers Pavilion, Sacramento County; Locke, Sacramento County; Walnut Grove Chinatown, Sacramento County. Reference: Bulletin 1992: 2; Chu 1970: 33; Leung 1984: 17; Office of Historic Preservation 1991a.
Isleton Bing Kung Tong Building, Sacramento County.
Isleton Bing Kung Tong building at 27 Main Street, town of Iselton, is within the Isleton Asian American Historic District. Built in 1926, it was constructed by Chinese and reflects theassociation-style architecture of San Francisco Chinatown. See Isleton Asian American Historic District, Sacramento County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1991 b.
Lincoln Chan Ranch, Sacramento County.
A successful Chinese American farmer, Lincoln Chan had 5,000 acres under the plow by 1950.
Known as the
"Pear King" because of his acreage around Courtland, he owned most of the land
upon which Courtland Chinatown was built
. See Courtland Chinatown, Sacramento County.
Reference: Leung 1984: 25, 39
.
Little China, Sacramento County.
Little China was the name given to Sacramento Chinatown between 1852-1855. See Sacramento
Chinatown, Sacramento County. Reference: Praet
zellis and Praetzellis 1982: 16.
Locke, Sacramento County.
Locke is the only complete town in California that was planned and built by Chinese. During its
prime, it had more th
an 600 residents and its own post office. However, the Chinese only leased
the land. The
town's origin lies in the 1915 burning of nearby Walnut Grove Chinatown. Lee
Bing and others of Walnut Grove decided to moved upriver and form their own communit
y in
an area where two other Chinese had established a saloon
, gaming hall and boarding house. After
gaining permission for construction from the land owner
, it took one year for the streets to be laid
out and build
ings erected. It was essentially built in its entirety by 1927 and is little changed
today
. The town was named after George Locke, the land owner. When the word Locke is
spoken with a Chungshan dialect pronunciation
, the dialect spoken by its residents, Locke sounds
like "lock kee" and means "happy living.
" The town is on the National Register of Historic
Places and has been designated as a National Historic Landmark
. See Isleton Asian American
Historic District, Sacramento County; Walnut Grove Chinatown
, Sacramento County. Reference:
Gillenkirk and Motlow 1987: 12-23; Leung 1984: 28-36; MacDonald-Ooms 1976; Office of
Historic Preservation 1990b. Photo. 
Locke Road, Sacramento County.
Locke Road is the primary approach to the town of Locke. It is accessed from County Road E 13.
See Locke, Sacramento County. 

Natoma Station Ground Sluices Chinese Diggings, Sacramento County.
Natoma Station Ground Sluices Chinese Diggings, City of Folsom, is located on a triangle of land created by Highway 50 and Folsom Boulevard. The Natoma Land Company owned the property, possibly as early as the 1860's. Chinese laborers and miners had worked the general area as early as the 1850s and were clearly on the Natoma Company land in the 1880's, hence, the name of Chinese Diggings. The City of Folsom General Plan shows it to be Site of Historic Interest No. 37. It has been nominated as a California Point of Historic Interest and to the National Register of Historic Places. Reference: National Park Service 1989; Office of Historic Preservation 1988
New Helvetia Cemetery, Sacramento County.
A plaque located at the northeast comer of Alhambra Boulevard and J Street in the City of
Sacramento commemorates New Helvetia Cemetery. It reads
, "Established by John Sutter in 1849; purchased in 1857 by L. W. Reeves, who later deeded it to the City of Sacramento. The 1,009 Chinese buried here were shipped to China by the Chinese societies who deeded their plots to the city." The plaque was placed by Sutter Parlor No. 111 of the Native Daughters of the Golden West in 1937. The site is California Historic Landmark No. 592. Reference: Johnson 1995: 127.

North Fork of the Mokelumne River Chinatown, Sacramento County.
North Fork of the Mokelumne River Chinatown was about six miles south of Walnut Grove on the river. It burned in 1885 and was not rebuilt. Reference: Arreola 1975: 11.
Oak Chan Elementary School. Sacramento County.
Oak Chan Elementary School at 101 North Prewitt Drive, City of Folsom, is part of the local school district. Officially dedicated June 8, 1991, the school was named in honor of Chin (Chan) Oak who settled in Folsom in the early 1850's. Chin Oak established a dry goods store, Wing Sing Wo, that became a focus of the Chinese community. Known as the Mayor of Chinatown, he was respected by Chinese and non-Chinese, often acting as go-between to settle disputes. Upon his death in 1924, the school district declared a day of mourning and dismissed school out of respect'[or his contributions. See Sutter Street Chinatown, Sacramento County. Reference: Chan 1999.
Paintersville Chinatown, Sacramento County.
Paintersville Chinatown was on the east bank of the Sacramento River between the communities of Courtland and Vorden. Its population increased in 1885 when Elliott Chinatown burned during the same year. See Elliott Chinatown, Sacramento County. Reference: Arreola 1975: 10.
Prairie City Chinatown , Sacramento County.
Prairie City Chinatown located within Prairie City near Prairie City Road and Highway 50, had a small number of Chinese residents to include a store and cemetery. The Chinese were reworking gold diggings in the area as early as 1855. It has been nominated as a California Point of Historic Interest. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1988.

Rio Vista Chinatown, Sacramento County.
Rio Vista Chinatown was evident by 1878 and consisted of six houses located on Front Street
within the town of Rio Vista. The failure of the asparagus crop between 1910-1920 marked the
end of Rio Vista Chinatown
. Reference: Leung 1984: 16-17.

Sacramento Chinatown, Sacramento County.
Sacramento Chinatown was a viable community as early as 1852. It was located on I Street
between Fifth Street and Sixth Street in the City of Sacramento. It was destroyed by fire in
1854. Rebuilt
, it was again destroyed by fire. Once more rebuilt in 1855, Sacramento Chinatown expanded to the south side of I Street. By the 1870's, its center was Channel Street. The people of Sacramento Chinatown helped the movement of goods and workers to the gold fields of both northern California and the western Sierra Nevada Mountains. Eventually falling into disrepair, the area underwent redevelopment. See Chinadom, Sacramento County; China Lake, Sacramento County; China Slough, Sacramento County; Little China, Sacramento County. Reference: Praetzellis and Praetzellis 1982: 16-28; Wells 1962: 5.
Rio Vista Chinatown, Sacramento County.
Rio Vista Chinatown was evident by 1878 and consisted of six houses located on Front Street
within the town of Rio Vista. The failure of the asparagus crop between 1910-1920 marked the
end of Rio Vista Chinatown
. Reference: Leung 1984: 16-17.
Sam Fong Chong Laundry, Sacramento County
This locale is of interest because it had been a Chinese-operated laundry for more than one  hundred years. Located at 818 I Street in the City of Sacramento, Sam Fong Chong Laundry began in the 1850's but was gone by 1870. However, a new brick building was built next door in 1895 for Chung Fong, a laundryman. He employed as many as five laundrymen and three day laborers. It is not known exactly when Chung Fong left the laundry, but, it continued as a Chinese laundry until after 1954. Reference: Praetzellis and Praetzellis 1990: 17-18.

Site of China Slough, Sacramento County.
Officially designated as Site of China Slough, the locale commemorates Sacramento Chinatown that once stood on its bank and the contribution of the Chinese. Presently, the site is the location of the Southern Pacific Railroad Depot and is California Historical Landmark No. 594. See China Lake, Sacramento County; Sacramento Chinatown, Sacramento County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1990a: 165; Hoover 1966: 306.
Sam Yup Cemetery, Sacramento County.
Sam Yup Cemetery, City of Folsom, was renamed Chung Wah Cemetery when nominated to the National Register of Historic Places. See Chung Wah Cemetery, Sacramento County.

Steamboat Landings, Sacramento County.
By 1913, approximately 18 steamboat landings with Chinese names were located in the
Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta region
. The landings were usually named after their owners or persons most frequently identified as using them. Many of the landing names are those of the Chinese companies that had leased large tracts of land for farming. The landing names include:
Ah Pok
China Landing
China Ranch
Dick How
Lee Sang
Mow Sang
Quong Goon
Quong L
ee
Gee Fung
Gee Sang
Hong Wah
Hop Goon
Hop Sing
Quong Yong
Sang Wah
Sing Kee
Sing Lee
Tai On Company

See Shin Kee Tract, San Joaquin County. Reference: Chan 1986: 171-173; Leung 1984: 18-23.

Sutter Street Chinatown, Sacramento County.
Sutter Street Chinatown, City of Folsom, was bounded by Sutter Street and River Street and
extended to Sibley Street and Wool Street. The community supported its own barbers, doctors,
restaurants, laundries, butcher shop and merchants to include the Wing Sing Market
. When the
market moved next door in the early 1920's
, its name changed to Chan Market. A fire in 1901
destroyed about one-half the buildings in Sutter Street Chinatown. Through the years, residents
decreased with only one family remaining in the 1990's. See Oak Chan Elementary School,
Sacramento County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1995
.

Vorden Chinatown, Sacramento County .
.Located between Paintersville and Locke on the east side of the Sacramento River, Vorden
Chinatown was within the community of Vorden. Its Chinese residents were agricultural
workers. Vorden itself was a small trading and shipping center. Reference: Arreola 1975: 10;
Thompson 1957: 416.

Walnut Grove Bing Kung Tong Building, Sacramento County.
Located at 14136 Market Street in the town of Walnut Grove, Bing Kung Tong building was
built soon after the 1937 fire that destroyed much of Walnut Grove Chinatown. The building is
particularly noteworthy because of its blending of the Modernistic style and Chinese association-style architecture. See Walnut Grove Chinatown, Sacramento County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1990c.

Walnut Grove Chinatown, Sacramento County.\
The town of Walnut Grove dates to the early 1850s, spreading west across the Sacramento River by the late 1880's. The Chinese occupied the older east side, forming the Walnut Grove 
Chinatown. Its residents from the Sze Yup District of China tended to work the field crops with
Chungshanese employed in the orchards. By 1900, Walnut Grove Chinatown was in a state of
decline. However, the advent of asparagus cultivation provided new jobs, periodically prompting many migrant workers to swell the population. A fire in 1915 destroyed 80 buildings and prompted the Chungshanese to relocate to Locke. The fire of 1937, possibly arson, destroyed a three-block section of Walnut Grove Chinatown, displacing more than 500 people. Rebuilding quickly took place, primarily in an Art Moderne/Modernistic style with features Chinese in character and style. As a result, Walnut Grove Chinatown is considered to be the last Chinatown established in the delta region and the only one with its distinctive streetscape. It has been nominated to the National Register of Historic Places as the Walnut
' Grove Chinese American Historic District. See Walnut Grove Bing Kung Tong Building, Sacramento County.
Yeong Wo Cemetery, Sacramento County.
Yeong Wo Cemetery is another name for Young Wo Cemetery. See Young Wo Cemetery,
Sacramento County.
Young Wah Cemetery, Sacramento County.
Young Wah Cemetery is another name for Young Wo Cemetery. See Young Wo Cemetery,
Sacramento County.
Young Wo Cemetery, Sacramento County.
Young Wo Cemetery, City of Folsom, is north of Lakeside Memorial Lawn Cemetery. A plaque
at the site states, "This sacred ground is one of three revered cemeteries: Yeong Wo
, Sam Yup,
and Hakka that served the Chinese community once located just north of her, One cemetery
vanished during gold dredging; only Yeong Wo and Sam Yup remain
. The Yeong Wo Cemetery
provided burial for those from the Chungshan District in China
. Buried here are Chinese pioneers
that struggled for economic survival and human dignity and in so doing helped build Folsom and
the West
." Presently, the site is a city park. See Sam Yup Cemetery, Sacramento County; Hakka
Chinese Cemetery
, Sacramento County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1995.
Young Wo Circle, Sacramento County.
Young Wo Circle is a new street adjacent to Young Wo Cemetery. The street name was placed
on the tract map by someone who was unaware that another name was being considered
. See
Young Wo Cemetery, Sacramento County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1995.

San Joaquin County
Channel Street Chinatown, San Joaquin County.
Channel Street Chinatown was bounded by Channel Street between EI Dorado Street and Hunter
Street in the City of Stockton
. Its closeness to shipping caused it to be the third stop on the route
to the gold fields. Accordingly, Stockton and eventually Channel Street Chinatown itself became
known as Sam Fow
. Channel Street Chinatown dates to at least 1850 when a census showed 53
Chinese living there
. A fire in 1862 destroyed many structures, including the joss house built by
the Heungshanese
. The fire prompted the Sze Yup people to leave the crowded area and start a
second Chinatown on nearby Washington Street
. Channel Street Chinatown persisted, with the
joss house being rebuilt in 1882
. By 1920, only it and two laundries remained. See Heungshan
Joss House, San Joaquin County; Washington Street Chinatown
, San Joaquin County; Sam Fow,
San Joaquin County. Reference: Minnick 1988: 36-39,40,43.
China Camp, San Joaquin County.
By 1900, reclamation of river land had increased agricultural activity on Victoria Island. Two
Chinese farming groups on the island, with a combined population of 30, prompted the United States Census taker of 1900 to identify them collectively as China Camp. Reference: Minnick 1983: 153
Chinese 1976 Bicentennial Monument, San Joaquin County.
Chinese 1976 Bicentennial Monument is near the corner of W. Center Street and E. Lindsay Street by Miners Levee, City of Stockton. The monument commemorates the contribution of the Chinese in Stockton. Reference: Herrick 2017.

Chinese Cemetery, San Joaquin County.
Chinese Cemetery noted on United States topographic maps is actually French Camp Chinese Cemetery in the town of French Camp. See French Camp cemetery, San Joaquin County. Reference: United States Geological Survey 1968.
Chung Wah Building, San Joaquin County.
Chung Wah building at 212 East Lafayette Street in the City of Stockton is the headquarters of the Chinese Benevolent Association. By 1925, the Chinese Christian Center and Chinese Language School had moved into the building. The Chinese Benevolent Association had actively supported Sun Yat-sen and was an important fund raiser for the China War Relief Fund. It continued its mediation and arbitration of disputes for the community until the 1950's. Today, the association oversees French Camp Chinese Cemetery and conducts the annual Ch'ing Ming ceremony there. See French Camp Chinese Cemetery, San Joaquin County. Reference: Minnick 1988: 276,279-280; 306-307.
Chung Wah Lane, San Joaquin County.
In the heart of what was Washington Street Chinatown in the City of Stockton, Chung Wah Lane commemorates the Chinese past in Stockton. It is a 20-feet wide, one-block-long walkway in the middle of the block bounded by Washington Street, Market Street, El Dorado Street and Hunter Street. There is an arch supported by pillars at each end of the lane with the path itself inlaid with a stone motif of Chinese dragons and lucky symbols. Reference: Minnick 1988: 302.
Clements Chinese Business Area, San Joaquin County.
The Chinese business area in the town of Clements was on the south side of the railroad tracks between Second Street and Third Street in 1888. It was gone by 1912. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1888a, 1912a.

Confucius Monument, San Joaquin County.
The Confucius Monument is across the street from the City Hall of Stockton. It was given to the city by the Chinese community in honor of the two hundredth birthday of the United States. Reference: Minnick 1988: 306.
French Camp Chinese Cemetery, San Joaquin County.
Located on Matthews Road in French Camp, the cemetery is for use by Chinese only. It was established in the 1920's by the Chinese community and is maintained by Chung Wah. The cemetery is still in use with Ch'ing Ming celebrated annually. See Chung Wah Building, San Joaquin County. Reference: Minnick 1988: 290,298.
Haggin Museum, San Joaquin County.
Haggin Museum, at 1201 North Pershing Avenue in the City of Stockton, has an herb shop display. It serves as a reminder of the Chinese in Stockton. Reference: Minnick 1988: 304.

Heungshan Joss Temple, San Joaquin County.
Heungshan Joss Temple at 120 Hunter Street, City of Stockton, was built by those from the Heungshan District of China. It was the focus of activity for the Heungshanese in Channel Street Chinatown. A fire destroyed the building in 1862 and was replaced by one made of brick in 1882. Eventually, the temple and Kwan Kung, its principal deity, was moved to the Yeong Wo Association building at 134 East Washington Street in Washington Street Chinatown. It closed in the 1960's because of urban redevelopment in the area. Reference: Minnick 1988: 38-44,266.
Jene Wah Center, San Joaquin County.
Jene Wah Center is at 505 South San Joaquin Street in the City of Stockton. It provides Chinese seniors with meals as well as social and recreational activities. Reference: Minnick 1988: 308.
Lee Yuen Building, San Joaquin County.
Located at the comer of Washington Street and El Dorado Street in the City of Stockton, it dates to 1878. Today, with a different function, it is called Lee's Liquor and Hardware. It has been designated a Stockton Heritage Business by the Stockton Chamber of Commerce because of the longevity of Chinese business activity at that site. Reference: Minnick 1988: 302-303.
Lodi Chinese Business Area, San Joaquin County.
The Chinese business area in the town of Lodi was on the east side of Sacramento Street between Locust Street and Lockeford Street. It consisted of one laundry and one dwelling in 1895. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1895c.
Mun Kwok Lane, San Joaquin County.
Mun Kwok Lane is located in the redevelopment area of Washington Street Chinatown, City of Stockton. With a north-south orientation, it crosses Chung Wah Lane at a right angle. A translation of Mun Kwok suggests that it means "international." This may be a reference to the clientele who frequented that part of the Chinatown in early times. See Chung Wah Lane, San Joaquin County; Washington Street Chinatown, San Joaquin County. Reference: Cheng 1999.
On Lock Sam Restaurant Building, San Joaquin County.
On Lock Sam Restaurant has been in operation for 100 years. Its original home was razed for
urban renewal in the 1960's. Presently, the restaurant is located at 333 South Sutter Street, City
of Stockton. Reference: Minnick 1999c.
Quan Ying Senior Apartments Building, San Joaquin County.
Quan Ying Senior Apartments building is located at 301 South San Joaquin Street, City of
Stockton
. Possibly dating to 1907, it was built by the Salvation Army. The Chinese Benevolent
Association purchased the structure in the early 1970's and renamed it the Confucius Building.
Presently, it is being remodeled into a retirement home for seniors. Its new name, Quan Ying
,
translates as "Gathering of Good People" or "Hall of Heros." Reference: Minnick 1999b.
Sam Fow, San Joaquin County.
Sam Fow, meaning "Third City," was the Chinese term for the City of Stockton. Later it was
applied to Channel Street Chinatown and refers to it being the third stop on the way to the gold
fields. See Channel S
treet Chinatown, San Joaquin County. Reference: Minnick 1988: 36.
Scott's Avenue Chinatown, San Joaquin County.
Scott's Avenue Chinatown was located on the south side of Mormon Slough between Butler
Street and Resaca Street on Scott's Avenue in the City of Stockton. Residents harvested fish and clams from the slough and blackberries from its banks. The Chinese came to dominate the
blackberry market throughout Stockton. When the land upon which Scott's Avenue Chinatown
sat was sold
, it soon disappeared. Reference: Minnick 1988: 39, 45-46, 50.
Shin Kee Tract, San Joaquin County.
Shin Kee Tract is a l,100 acre triangular-shaped area of farm land on the northeast side of the bend in White Slough and was bought by Lung Chin in 1912. It is possibly the only tract named after a store--the Sing Kee Store, City of San Francisco, which Lung Chin owned. The correct spelling of the tract's name is Sing Kee. The farm provided employment to the Heungshan of Channel Street Chinatown in Stockton. The farm ceased to exist in 1923. See Channel Street Chinatown, San Joaquin County; Sing Kee Store, San Francisco County. Reference: Chan 1986: 210-212; Lai 1998: 5; United States Geological Survey 1952.
Stockton China Camp, San Joaquin County.
Stockton China Camp was bounded by Harrison Street, Edison Street and Jefferson Street in the City of Stockton. It was called China Camp in the 1900 United States Census. However, it disappeared soon thereafter. Reference: Minnick 1983: 157.

Stockton Rural Cemetery, San Joaquin County.
Stockton Rural Cemetery was the burial ground for the City of Stockton. A portion was set aside for the Chinese and was used by them starting January 13, 1863. Records indicate that between 1863 and 1935, 1,387 Chinese were eventually exhumed with most being sent to China. The last exhumation occurred in October 1936. Reference: Minnick 1988: 293-294. 
Terminous, San Joaquin County.
The town of Terminous is at the junction of Potato Slough and Mokelumne River. By 1900, it
had a population of more than 750, all Chinese
. The workers were employed in agriculture and
are said to be responsible for the success of asparagus growing. The Chinese became the
dominant work force in the asparagus canneries. Reference: Minnick 1988: 182-184.
Washington Street Chinatown, San Joaquin County.
Washington Street Chinatown was the second Chinatown of Stockton. It was located near the
city center at Washington Street between El Dorado Street and Hunter Street
. Most of its
residents were from the Toishan District in Guangdong Province
. Washington Street Chinatown
developed because of the 1862 fire in Channel Street Chinatown and its overcrowded conditions.Construction of a freeway through the area and local urban redevelopment projects brought an end to it in the 1960's. See Channel Street Chinatown, San Joaquin County; Chung Wah Lane, San Joaquin County; Mun Kwok Lane, San Joaquin County. Reference: Minnick 1988
: 51, 188- 210. 

Washington Street Chinatown Residential Neighborhood, San Joaquin County.
In 1978, the City of Stockton conducted a survey of historic buildings that included a predominately Chinese residential neighborhood. The neighborhood is southeast of Washington Street Chinatown and centered around South America Street and East Anderson Street. The survey identified 15 structures and one church as important, placing them on the Historic Resource Inventory. The buildings represented the architectural style typical of the 1910-1925 era and were mostly Colonial Revival, California Bungalow and Tudor Revival. The church was noted as Gothic in style without high spires. See Washington Street Chinatown, San Joaquin County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1978d.
Wong Kee Gew Mansion, San Joaquin County.
Wong Kee Gew arrived from China in the 1880's. In 1921, he built a large home at 345 West Clay Street in the City of Stockton. Displaying a federal revivalist architecture style that was typical of the period, the mansion is a City of Stockton Historical Landmark and on the National Register of Historic Places. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1978c. 

                                                            Stanislaus County

China Cabin Flat, Stanislaus County.
China Cabin Flat is actually a river terrace next to and on the north side of Garzas Creek. It is about 15 miles west of the town of Gustine and is part of the Diablo Mountain Range. There is evidence of mining activity throughout the area. Reference: United States Geological Survey 1969a.

China Ford, Stanislaus County.
China Ford was the Chinatown of the community of Hill's Ferry. It was located south of present-day Hills Ferry Bridge on the west bank of the San Joaquin River. Its name appears to be derived from it being next to a place where it was easy to get across the river, i.e. a ford. Residents of China Ford worked as farm laborers and cooks, operated laundries, fished the river, grew and sold vegetables and loaded grain on river boats. However, when railroad construction passed the community, its residents relocated to Newman Chinatown. See Newman Chinatown, Stanislaus County. Reference: Crow 1988: 621.

China Island, Stanislaus County.
China Island was a small island in the San Joaquin River near China Ford. See China Ford, Stanislaus County. Reference: Crow 1988: 621.

Knights Ferry Chinatown, Stanislaus County.
Knights Ferry Chinatown was located three blocks east of the plaza in the town of Knights Ferry. It was on the main road just before the bridge over the river. Knights Ferry itself was a bustling community serving those in the nearby gold fields. Reference: Williams 1971: 41, 48.

Modesto Chinatown, Stanislaus County.
Modesto Chinatown in the City of Modesto was located on the south side of Eighth Street between G Street and F Street. By 1885, there was one laundry, one store and about 20 dwellings. It expanded to Seventh Street in 1888. It was the site of considerable anti-Chinese activity by the late 1880's. Most of Modesto Chinatown had burned by 1891. Many of its residents were displaced, although it continued to survive until at least 1911. Reference: "Pebbles from the Past." 1987; Sanborn Insurance Map 1888c, 1891.

Newman Chinatown, Stanislaus County.
Newman Chinatown was located east of the railroad tracks on San Joaquin Street and L Street in the town of Newman. Newman Chinatown was one block long with about one-half dozen buildings. Starting in the 1880's because of railroad construction in the area, its population increased when the Chinese of China Ford relocated there in 1888. By 1908, there were three laundries and 12 dwellings. Only one laundry remained in 1912. Of note is the Bank of Newman, the place where the Chinese bought Hong Kong exchange to send to relatives in China. See China Ford, Stanislaus County. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1908, 1912b; Stanislaus Stepping Stones, 1977.

Oakdale Chinese Business Area, Stanislaus County.
The Chinese business area in Oakdale was east of the railroad tracks on East Railroad Avenue between E Street and F Street. In April 1884, there was one laundry and one dwelling. The next year, the dwellings numbered three. By 1890, the area had expanded to Fourth Avenue between E Street and F Street. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1884c, 1890a, 1907b.


 Sutter County
Princeton Chinatown, Sutter County.
Princeton Chinatown was just north of the ferry crossing between the Sacramento River and
County Road 45 in the town of Princeton
. Most of the more than 200 residents worked on local farms. Princeton Chinatown was severely damaged by fire on June 23, 1879 but continued through the 1880's. Princeton, Princeton Chinatown and the surrounding area had originally been part of Glenn County but were deeded to Sutter County when it was formed. Reference: Baker 1968: 54, 58-59; "Valley Chinatowns" 1972: 30.
Shanghai Bend, Sutter County.
Shanghai Bend is a meander on the Feather River about three miles south of the center of Yuba
City
. Although the place names exact origin is no longer remembered, longtime residents of
Yuba City and Marysville state that in the old days there were Chinese workers in the area
.
Everyone agrees that it was a good fishing place before the 1954 flood. Reference: Compass
Maps 1997.
Shanghai Bend City Park, Sutter County.
Shanghai Bend City Park is at Garden Highway and Shanghai Bend Road in Yuba City. It is a
small, city-owned urban park near the Feather River. See Shanghai Bend
, Sutter County.
Reference: Compass Maps 1997.
Shanghai Bend County Park, Sutter County.
Shanghai Bend County Park is one-half mile east of Shanghai Bend City Park in Sutter County. Operated by the county, its location next to the levee that confines the Feather River makes it a popular place. See Shanghai Bend, Sutter County. Reference: Compass Maps 1997.
Shanghai Bend Road, Sutter County.
Shanghai Bend Road is oriented in an east-west direction and leads to both Shanghai Bend City Park and Shanghai Bend County Park. It eventually turns southward paralleling the levee on the Feather River. See Shanghai Bend, Sutter County. Reference: Compass Maps 1997.
Yuba City Chinese Vegetable Garden, Sutter County.
Yuba City Chinese Vegetable Garden covered a large area in the community of Yuba City. The
garden was located between B Street and Airman Street by 1890
. However, by 1909, it had been taken over by Japanese. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1890b, 1909b.

Tehama County
China Chutes, Tehama County.
The City of Red Bluff was the northernmost terminus for river boats bringing gold seekers up
the Sacramento River. Leaving the boat
, they followed the river northward on foot. The bank of the Sacramento River just above Red Bluff saw so many Chinese traveling toward the gold
fields that it became known as China Chutes. Reference: Reed 1980: 5.
China Gulch, Tehama County.
(1) China Gulch in Mendocino National Forest is a seasonal stream that flows southwest to
northeast for about two and one-half miles before joining Thomas Creek at Hatch Flat.
Reference: United States Geological Survey 1967
.
(2) China Gulch is a perennial stream that flows into Little Dry Creek. Its drainage area contains both North Fork of China Gulch and South Fork of China Gulch. Reference: United States Geological Survey 1976.
China Gulch Road, Tehama County.
By 1860, gold mining was no longer a profitable activity in the area around Red Bluff. As a
result, many Chinese left the gold fields and returned to the town itself. A concentration of
Chinese soon developed along what became known as China Gulch Road. Reference: Reed
1980: 5.
China Slough, Tehama County.
China Slough is an intermittent stream that flows northeast to southwest into the Sacramento
River. It is located in a rich agricultural area on the north side of the town of Vina. Reference:
United States Geological Survey 1969b.
Chinese Rapids, Tehama County.
Chinese Rapids are on the Sacramento River, due east one-half mile from the town of Bend. The rapids extend for about three-quarters of a mile. See China Chutes, Tehama County. Reference: United States Geological Survey 1965.
North Fork China Gulch, Tehama County.
See China Gulch and Little Dry Creek, Tehama County.
Red Bluff Chinatown, Tehama County.
Red Bluff Chinatown extended from Hickory Street to Oak Street along Rio Street in the town
of Red Bluff by the 1850's
. The center of activity was the herb shop. It offered herbs, groceries, banking and correspondence services as well as a meeting place. It persisted at least through 1972. Reference: McGowan 1961: 330; "Valley Chinatowns" 1972: 32.

South Fork China Gulch, Tehama County.
See China Gulch and Little Dry Creek, Tehama County.
Tehama Chinatown, Tehama County.
Tehama Chinatown was the largest Chinatown in the county. It was along the Sacramento River between C Street and the railroad tracks, westward to Second Street in the town of Tehama. A fire destroyed Tehama Chinatown and its joss house in August of 1908. Reference: "Valley Chinatowns" 1972: 28. 
Tehama County Museum, Tehama County.
Tehama County Museum located at 275 Third Street, City of Tehama, has a permanent display of Chinese artifacts.
Vina Chinatown, Tehama County.
Vina Chinatown was located on both sides of Sixth Street, northward along the railroad tracks in the town of Vina. A fire in 1919 marked its end. Reference: "Valley Chinatowns" 1972: 29.
Vina Chinese Cemetery, Tehama County.
Although Vina Chinatown was gone by 1919, Vina Chinese Cemetery continued until 1929, when the last Chinese interred in the cemetery was removed. A ceremonial burner still marked the location of the cemetery in 1972. See Vina Chinatown, Tehama County. Reference: "Valley Chinatowns" 1972: 29.

Tulare County
Central California Chinese Cultural Center, Tulare County.
Opening on February 11, 1990, Central California Chinese Cultural Center at 500 South Akers Road in the City of Visalia, has two twelve-ton marble lions guarding the entrance. The center has exhibits of Chinese artifacts, artwork and family heirlooms. The authentic Chinese architectural style of the Confucius Temple and courtyard are of particular interest. Reference: Central California Chinese Cultural Center Brochure 1990.
Dinuba Chinese Business Area, Tulare County.
The Chinese business area in the town of Danube was on the south side of Tulare Street between K Street and Sixth Street. In 1884, it had one laundry and one store. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1884b.
Tulare Chinese Business Area, Tulare County.
The town of Tulare had a Chinese business area between Kern Street and Inyo Street and was bounded by J Street and L Street. It contained four laundries and more than 12 dwellings in 1887. Although it grew in size by 1892, it was greatly reduced by 1913. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1887, 1892b, 1913.
Tulare County Museum, Tulare County.
Tulare County Museum at 27000 Mooney Boulevard, City of Visalia, has Chinese artifacts on permanent display.
Visalia Chinatown, Tulare County.
The Chinese were in the town of Visalia by the 1850's. Still, it was not until 1885 that Visalia Chinatown was apparent. It contained three Chinese stores located between East Center Street and East Main Street, bounded by North East Street and Bridge Street. By 1903, Chinese activity covered almost three blocks. Reference', Sanborn Insurance Map1885c.

                                                   Yolo County
China Bend, Yolo County.
China Bend is on the Sacramento River near the community of Kirkville. The area is characterized by levees and canals, all important to the agricultural activity along the river. Reference: United States Geological Survey 1970.
China Peak, Yolo County.
China Peak is approximately 1,100 feet above sea level. It is two and one-half miles north of the town of Guida in Copay Valley. Reference: United States Geological Survey 1980.
Davisville Chinese Business Area, Yolo County.
The Chinese business area in Davisville was on Olive Street between Second Street and Third Street. There were two laundries in 1888. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1888b.
r
Knights Landing Chinese Business Area, Yolo County.
The community of Knights Landing had a Chinese business area south of the railroad tracks between Mill Street and Railroad Street. There were two laundries and two dwellings in 1894. Only one laundry survived to 1921. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1894a, 1921.
Woodland Chinatown, Yolo County.

Woodland Chinatown was located along Dead Cat Alley between Court Street and Main Street in the town of Woodland. It was bounded by Elm Street and College Street. Woodland Chinatown dates to the late 1870's when almost half the 60 to 70 Chinese residents worked as cooks in the many hotels of Woodland. By 1886, Woodland Chinatown had two laundries, one store and about 14 dwellings. Reference: Felton 1984: 11-12; Sanborn Insurance Map 1886


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