Southern California

Chinese, Santa Barbara, Ventrua, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, orange, San Diego, Imperial


Imperial County

Confucius Church and Community Center, Imperial County.
Confucius Church and Community Center in the City of El Centro dates to around 1940. It is the last evidence of a Chinese community that began prior to 1907, in the city. The Chinese of that earlier time were storekeepers and tradesmen. Reference: Wey 1988: 151.


Los Angeles County

American-Chinese American Legion Post No. 628, Los Angeles County.
American-Chinese American Legion Post No. 628 began on September 18, 1945. Its first home was at 1016 South San Pedro Street, City of Los Angeles. By the Fall of 1967, it relocated to 730 North Broadway. Its purpose was to promote camaraderie among Chinese American veterans and provide educational and recreational programs for the Chinese community. The post worked towards immigration reform, awarded scholarships and continued the child welfare program along with several other projects. Through the years, its membership decreased with the post closing in 1998. Reference: Fong 1998: 28-34. 

Anna May Wong Star, Los Angeles County.
Anna May Wong, the first Chinese American film star, was born in Los Angeles Old Chinatown in 1905 to parents who were in the laundry business. Her film career began in 1919 as an extra. She attained her first leading role in 1922 in the film Toll of the Sea and international attention with the 1924 release of The Thief of Baghdad. In 1926, she appeared in Jun You Jew's first film, Story of Xue Pinggui. By 1928, Wong had relocated to Europe where she became an internationally respected star of film and stage. She returned to Los Angeles in 1931 where her 1932 performance in Shanghai Express marked the pinnacle of her career. Her last film was in 1960: Savage Innocents. In all, Wong performed in 21 films. She resided in Santa Monica until her death in 1961. Her star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame is at 1708 Vine Street, Hollywood. See Bruce Lee Star, Los Angeles County; Los Angeles Old Chinatown, Los Angeles, County. Reference: Kyle 1988:7-11; Lai 1998: 5; See 1995: 215,225-230. Photo.

Bilingual Street Signs, Los Angeles County
Responding to a dramatic increase in the Chinese language-only population of the Los Angeles
Chinatown, various Chinatown community groups petitioned the City of Los Angeles to place
Chinese-English language street signs at various intersections
. The intent was to symbolize a
beginning point for many Asian immigrants who lived in Chinatown and to help them assimilate
more easily into an English-speaking culture
. The first sign was unveiled on November 26, 1984
and was the first comprehensive effort at bilingual street signage in the city. Usuall
y the Chinese language portion of the sign is a phonetic pronunciation of the street name. Yet, some street names, such as New High Street, may be heard as profanity in the Sam Yup dialect. As a result, it was literally translated as were College Street and Sunset Boulevard. Others, such as Broadway and Yale Street, reflect their vernacular names. A total of 18 intersections and 64 sets of Chinese/English street signs had been installed by the early 1990's. Reference: "Bilingual Street Sign Ceremony," 1984: 1; Soo Hoo 1992

Bruce Lee Star, Los Angeles County.
Bruce Lee was an international film star known for his distinctive martial arts style. He
reportedly operated a martial arts studio in Greater Los Angeles Chinatown. Lee's star on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame is located at 6933 Hollywood Boulevard
Hollywood". See Greater Los
Angeles Chinatown
Los Angeles County. Photo.  

Bruce Lee Statue, Los Angeles County.
Bruce Lee Statue is in the central plaza of New Chinatown, 943-951 N. Broadway, City of Los Angeles. Ground breaking ceremony for the 7 foot, 1595 pound statue occurred on June 15, 2003. The statue is posed in a classic Bruce Lee fighting stance. See Bruce Lee Star, Los Angeles County; New Chinatown, Los Angeles County. Reference: "Los Angeles Chinatown's 75th Anniversary to Include Bruce Lee Dedication." Photo.

Burbank Chinatown, Los Angeles County.
Burbank Chinatown in the City of Burbank was part of the Inland Citrus Belt. Its residents were
employed by nearby orange and lemon tree growers. The community effectively came to an end
in September 1893 when a mob of non-Chinese marched into the Chinatown
. Fired by anti-
Chinese sentiment, they drove the Chinese away. Reference: Lawton 1987: 108-109.

Cathay Manor, Los Angeles County.
Cathay Manor, 600 North Broadway, City of Los Angeles, provides low cost housing for senior
citizens. It was made possible by community activity and funds from the Community
Redevelopment Agency. The facility can house 270 seniors and has a recreation center and
community services center. Reference: Chinese Historical Society of Southern California 1990a.


China City, Los Angeles County.
China City, in the City of Los Angeles, was bounded by Spring Street, Ord Street, Main Street,
and Macy Street. It encompassed almost an entire block. Started by a group of non-Chinese
, it
was a business site and home for newly-arrived Chinese immigrants and for some displaced by
the destruction of Los Angeles Old Chinatown
. It opened in 1938 and was particularly popular
during World War II. It attempted to capitalize on a preconceived notion of China. This meant
movie-like buildings (diminished size and "oriental" facade), rickshaw stations, terraces, temple,
pagoda, restaurants and retail shops--all of which was surrounded by a "Great Wall." Between
1938 and 1948, street names within the development were:
Dragon Road
Lotus Pool Road
Quan Yin Road
Shanghai Street

Although unrecorded, China City ceased to exist as an entity in the 1950's. See Los Angeles Old
Chinatown, Los Angeles County; Shanghai Street, Los Angeles County
. Reference: Louie 1988:
1-6; Map, "China City" 1988.

China Gulch, Los Angeles County.
China Gulch has a seasonal creek that flows within the Angeles National Forest. It was apparently
named after Chinese placer miners who worked the area
. Evidence of placer mining can be seen
in ditch construction and mine openings with three mines in the immediate vicinit
y of China
Gulch. Reference: Salatore 1993.

Chinatown Gateway Monument, Los Angeles County.
Chinatown Gateway Monument, also known as Twin Dragon Gateway, spans N. Broadway at Cesear E. Chavez Avenue, City of Los Angeles. Designed by Rubbert Mok, it was installed in 2001 with lighting added in 2004. A plaque states."...dragons above the clouds usher in good luck and harmony." Reference: Wallach, Ruth. Photo.

Chinese American Citizens Alliance Lodge, Los Angeles County.
The Chinese American Citizens Alliance is an organization dedicated to working for equal rights
for Chinese Americans. When the lodge headquarters was located at 415 North Los Angeles
Street during World War II
, the Chinatown militia unit held drill practice there. The unit was part
of the California State Military Reserve. Reference: Dresser 1992: 17-18. Photo.


Chinese American Museum, Los Angeles County.
The Chinese American Museum will be housed in the Gamier Block located within the EI Pueblo de Los Angeles Historic Park, City of Los Angeles. The two-story sandstone and brick structure was built for Chinese use in 1890 by the Garnier brothers and was part of Los Angeles Old Chinatown. Through time, portions of the block have served as a temple, Chinese American film company office, herb store and Consolidated Chinese Benevolent Association headquarters, among others. See Los Angeles Old Chinatown, Los Angeles County. Reference: EI Pueblo pamphlet, n.d.


Chinese American Veterans' Memorial Plaque, Los Angeles County.
Chinese American Veterans' Memorial Plaque is at the Alpine Recreation Center in Greater Los
Ange
les Chinatown. Dedicated to the Chinese Americans who served in the United States
m
ilitary, it was sponsored by the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, the Chinese
H
istorical Society of Southern California, the Friends of the Los Angeles Chinatown Library and
the Friends of the Museum of Chinese American History
. Reference: Minutes 1995.

Chinese Beverly Hills, Los Angeles County.
The placename "Chinese Beverly Hills" was coined by Frederick Hsieh for promoting the sale
of real estate in the City of Monterey Park throughout Taiwan and Hong Kong
. He introduced
the name to the Monterey Park Chamber of Commerce in 1976. A year later, he announced
that the area had become a mecca for Chinese immigrants. The immigrants, many uncertain about the People's Republic of China taking possession of Hong Kong in 1997, brought their family and wealth to the community
. As a result, it became the first suburban Chinatown in the country. See Monterey Park, Los Angeles County. Reference: Fong 1994: 1-31

Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association Building, Los Angeles County.
The distinctive architectural style of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association building
has resulted in it becoming a landmark in Los Angeles Chinatown. Opened in 1952, it houses
the association that dates to 1890. Its original headquarters was in the Garnier Block of Los
Angeles Old Chinatown under the name of Wei Leong Gung Sou. It changed its name to the
Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association in 1912. The association acts as an umbrella
organi
zation for many organizations that serve the needs of the Chinese American community.
See Los Angeles Old Chinatown, Los Angeles County. Reference: Chinese Historical Society
of Sout
hern California 1990b: 21-25.

Chinese United Methodist Church, Los Angeles County.
The Chinese United Methodist Church traces its Los Angeles beginning to the Chinese Christian Fellowship organization that started in 1887. The group met at 204 Marchessault Street in Los Angeles Old Chinatown. By 1893, the fellowship had been organized into a mission and moved to 522 North Los Angeles Street. Reverend Wun Bew Wong and the congregation relocated the mission to 618 New High Street in the early 1940's. Wishing to have their own home, construction started in 1947 on land owned by the church at 825 North Hill Street. Funding came from the National Board of Missions, the Southern California Conference and donations from community members and other churches. The first service was held on November 16, 1947. By 1968, the need for larger facilities was recognized. An addition was built and completed in 1969. See Los Angeles Old Chinatown, Los Angeles County. Reference: "History of the Los Angeles Chinese United Methodist Church" 1990: 11-19.

City Market Chinatown, Los Angeles County.
City Market Chinatown was located around the Los Angeles City Market at San Pedro Street and Ninth Street. It developed as a result of City Market itself being established in 1909, its Chinese workers being interested in living close to where they worked and uncertainty about the future of Los Angles Old Chinatown. The community contained restaurants, merchandise stores and a Congregational Church. With the establishment of New Chinatown, City Market Chinatown began to decline in numbers and importance. See Los Angeles City Market, Los Angeles County; Los Angeles Old Chinatown, Los Angles County; New Chinatown, Los Angeles County. Reference: McDannold 1971: 103-104. 

Compton Chinatown, Los Angeles County.
Compton Chinatown was the result of agricultural fields extending south of the City of Los
Angeles. The expansion came about because of the demand for vegetables by the increasing
population of Los Angeles. This meant greater employment opportunities for the Chinese. Rather than a daily travel to and from Los Angeles Old Chinatown, the workers established a
community near the fields. Eventually
, the Chinese controlled more than 90% of produce sales
in Los Angeles. Reference
: Lawton 1987 "Riverside First Chinatown": 42. 

Downey Chinese Business Area, Los Angeles County.
The Chinese business area in the town of Downey was on the west side of Crawford Street
between Second Street and Third Street. In 1887, there was one laundry and one dwelling.
However, both had disappeared by 1891
. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1887a, 1891a.

Dragon Mural, Los Angeles County.
Dragon Mural is in New Chinatown, City of Los Angeles. The mural can be seen by standing
next to the multi storied building in the central courtyard of New Chinatown and looking east
.
Unlike the menacing dragon of Europe, the Chinese dragon symbolizes strength, goodness and
the spirit of change
. Tyrus Wong, noted artist, master calligrapher and kite maker, painted the
m
ural in 1941. See New Chinatown, Los Angeles County. Reference: See 1995: 186-192. Photo.

Eagle Rock, Los Angeles County.
Eagle Rock is a prominent outcrop of sandstone on the north side of the Pasadena Freeway near Arroyo Seco within the Eagle Rock District of the City of Los Angeles. Its name derives from the eagle-like shadow cast by a ledge of rock in the morning. It is significant because it was a military training site for both Chinese Americans and citizens of China. They participated in leadership training in order to become a part of the Chinese Empire Reform Army. Conducted by Ansel O'Banion, training at Eagle Rock and its surrounding area continued for three years in secrecy. Eventually, the activity was discovered and O'Banion was convicted of training foreign troops on United States soil. He served several months in prison. With training stopped by the arrest, most Chinese returned to China. O'Banion was released early because of a governor's pardon. The release was an indication of America's sympathy for Sun Yat-sen's Nationalist revolution. Eagle Rock is Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument No. 10. See Headquarters, Chinese Empire Reform Army, Los Angeles County; Sun Yat-Sen Statue, Los Angeles County. Reference: Welcome 1985: 35-39


East Gate, Los Angeles County.
East Gate, an imposing passage way of carved wood and tile, faces east on the edge of New
Chinatown on North Broadway. It represents filial piet
y as envisioned and designed by You
Chung Hong and is a tribute to his mother and all mothers. Constructed in 1938
, the four
characters on the upper most plaque translate
, "Cooperate to Achieve." See West Gate, New
Chinatown
, Los Angeles County. Reference: Wong 1988: 23.

Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum, Los Angeles County.
Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum at 4700 Zoo Drive, City of Los Angeles, has a mural and exhibit depicting the Chinese and their part in developing the West.

Glendora Chinatown, Los Angeles County.

Like many small Chinatowns that started in the 1880's, Glendora Chinatown was the home of
Chinese laborers who worked in the booming agriculture industry. By the early 1890's, Glendora Chinatown had disappeared. Reference
: Lawton 1987, "A Selected ... ": 87.

Greater Los Angeles Chinatown, Los Angeles County.
Greater Los Angeles Chinatown emerged from the coalescence of New Chinatown and China
City. This was prompted in part by the end of Los Angeles Old Chinatown and the relocation
into the New Chinatown
/China City area by others from throughout the City of Los Angeles. But it was the influx of Asian immigrants of Chinese heritage in the 1970's that completed the
process. Stores and residences occupied by those of other ethnic origins were eventually given
over to Chinese use. Today, Greater Chinato
wn's population is approximately 12,000. It is a
vigorous communit
y providing goods and services to the larger community. See China City, Los Angeles County; Los Angeles Chinatown, Los Angeles County; New Chinatown, Los Angeles County; Los Angeles Old Chinatown, Los Angeles CountyPhoto.

Ha Gang, Los Angeles County.
Ha Gang is the name often used to identify the City of Hacienda Heights. As the cost of housing increased in nearby City of Monterey Park, many Chinese settled in Hacienda Heights. See Monterey Park, Los Angeles County. Reference: Dunn 1989: 1, 22. 

Headquarters, Chinese Empire Reform Army, Los Angeles County.
The Chinese Empire Reform Army Headquarters was located at 416 Marchessault Street, Los Angeles Old Chinatown. It served as the armory, training center and command post for the anti- Manchu revolutionary forces located in more than twenty cities throughout the United States. The army consisted of Chinese citizens and Chinese American laborers and agricultural workers led by Euro American officers. Homer Lea, a Euro American himself, was the Commander-in- Chief. Born in Colorado, Lea attended Occidental College and Stanford University. A student
of military strategy and a speaker of the Mandarin dialect
, he became involved with opposition to the Manchu government. His visit to China in 1900, resulted in a close relation with the revolution's leader, Dr. Sun Yat-sen. Lea formed the Reform Army upon his return to California in 1901. With the army declared illegal in 1905, Lea shifted his efforts to supporting the revolution through fund raising and writing. The outbreak of war in 1911 resulted in Lea presenting the cause in England and France. Sun appointed Lea as Commander in Chief of the Revolutionary Army in China itself where Lea led the forces in victory over Manchu battalions. Failing health caused him to return to California where he died on November 1, 1912. See Eagle Rock, Los Angeles County; Sun Yat-sen's Statue, Los Angeles County. Reference: Glick 1945: 52; Hardie 1990: 44-47.

Hsi Lai Temple, Los Angeles County.
Hsi Lai Temple sits on a ridge in the City of Hacienda Heights and is the largest Buddhist temple
in the western hemisphere. Its name translates as
"The monastery that has come from the East
to the West
." Constructed in 1988, the ten buildings spread over 14 acres and include a main
temple
, museum, library, housing for monks and nuns, meeting halls and offices. The temple
offers many community serv
ices and activities. See Ha Gang, Los Angeles County. Reference:
Newton 1988: 1-2. 

Hu Tao Shi, Los Angeles County.
Hu Tao Shi is the Chinese name for Walnut, a community east of Hacienda Heights. It reflects
an effort to avoid the high real estate prices that developed in the City of Mon
terey Park while
remaining close to that community
. See Hacienda Heights, Los Angeles County; Monterey Park,
Los Angeles County
. Reference: Dunn 1989: 22.

Keye Luke Star, Los Angeles County.
Keye Luke began his film career by accident in 1932 when he was 28 years old. Subsequently,
he played the Number One son in the first Charlie Chan film, eventually appearing in many of
them. He made the transition to the stage in 1958 and worked there until he began his continuing
role as Master Po on the television series
, Kung Fu. Luke stated that it was probably the greatest
part he had ever played. The Keye Luke star on the Holl
ywood Walk of Fame is at 7030
Hollywood Boulevard
, Hollywood. Reference: "A Venerable Thespian," 1981: 15-19,44. Photo.

Kong Chow Temple, Los Angeles County.
Kong Chow Temple began in Los Angeles Old Chinatown during 1891. Razing of the original
brick structure in 1948 ultimately resulted in a new building at 931 North Broadway in 1960.
Kuan Yu (Kwan Kung), the personification of an itinerant and marshaling god, is the principal
deity of the temple. The striking architectural style of the building is of particular note
. See Los
Angeles Old Chinatown, Los Angeles
, Los Angeles County. Reference: Cheng and K wok 1990:
15-19; Wells 1962: 70-75; Wong 1988: 27.

Lang Station, Los Angeles County.
Lang Station is a railroad facility on Soledad Road in Los Angeles County. It was the site of the
final connection of the railroad line between San Francisco and Los Angeles upon which literally
thousands of Chinese worked
. The linkage occurred on September 5, 1876. On that day, a special
train left the Alameda Station in Los Angeles at 9:30 A
.M. It was met at the Lang Station by a
train from the north at 1: 15 P.M. It held the state's governor
, president of Southern Pacific
Railroad
, the mayor of San Francisco and 50 other dignitaries. Charles Crocker, who introduced
Chinese as a significant labor force for railroad construction
, drove the golden spike connecting
the rails at 1:58 P.M. The Chinese Historical Society of Southern California placed a
commemorative plaque at Lang Station during the 100-year anniversary celebration. It is also California Historical Landmark No. 590. See Los Angeles Chinatown Heritage and Visitors Center, Los Angeles County. Reference: Signor 1983: 18-19.  

Light of Asia: Buddha Sakyamuni in Asian Art. Los Angeles County.
Light of Asia: Buddha Sakyamuni in Asian Art is a public art mural at Castelar Elementary School, 840 Yale Street, City of Los Angeles. It was done by Glenna Boltrech Avila in 1984. Buddha Sakyamuni is also known as Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. Reference: Wallace 2011.  

Lo Sang, Los Angeles County.
Lo Sang, pronounced with a hard "g," was the Chinese name for Los Angeles Old Chinatown.
See Los Angeles Old Chinatown
, Los Angeles County. Reference: Kronzek 1993: 46.

Los Angeles Chinatown, Los Angeles County.
Under the sponsorship of Councilman Paul Lamport, the City of Los Angeles officially
designated the area around North Broadway and Alpine Street as Los Angeles Chinatown in the
latter part of the 1960's. A large sign on Hill Street represents its northern border
. Los Angeles
Chinatown began in the area of today's Union Train Depot Metrorail Station. A thriving
community existed there from the 1870's to 1936 when the last buildings were destroyed for the
construction of the railroad terminal. The Chinese established a new commercial area about one-
half mile to the northeast
. It became New Chinatown. Others relocated across the street from the
train station
, living and working in a development known as China City. By the late 1960s, the
two areas had merged, forming what was generally perceived as the Los Angeles Chinatown.
Increased expansion into nearby residential areas produced the Greater Los Angeles Chinatown.
See Bilingual Street Signs, Los Angeles County; China City
, Los Angeles County; Greater Los
Angeles Chinatown, Los Angeles County; New Chinatown, Los Angeles County; Los Angeles
Old Chinatown
, Los Angeles County. Reference: McDannold 1971: 40-53, 55-59, 66-85. Photo.

Los Angeles Chinatown Heritage and Visitors Center, Los Angeles County.
Los Angeles Chinatown Heritage and Visitor Center consists of two Victorian-era houses within
Los Angeles Chinatown at 411 Bernard Street
. It presently provides guided tours of Los Angeles
Chinatown, exhibits, resources and outreach programs related to Chinese Americans. The center
is owned and operated by the Chinese Historical Society of Southern California
, an organization
started in 1975. The society is dedicated to bringing together people with an interest in Chinese
Americans of Southern California and the dissemination of related information
. The society also
maintains two major archaeological collections: Old Los Angeles Chinatown MTA materials and
the Santa Barbara High Lung First Class Laundry artifacts. See Los Angeles Old Chinatown, Los
Angeles County; Santa Barbara Chinatown, Santa Barbara County
.

Los Angeles Chinatown Library, Los Angeles County.
This modem 12,000 square foot branch of the Los Angeles Public Library is at the comer of Yale
Street and College Street and owes its existence to the people of Los Angeles Chinatown who
identified the need for the library and a location for it
. Through grants and fund raising, more
than one quarter of a million dollars was raised
. See Party at Lan-Ting Mural. Reference: Bartoo 1983: 1-5. 

Los Angeles Chinese Cemetery, Los Angeles County.
Los Angeles Chinese Cemetery is located at 4360 East First Street in the City of Los Angeles.
It was incorporated in 1922 and its distinctive gate was built in 1926. The cemetery is operated
by the Chinese Cemetery Association and reached capacity in the 1960's. See Los Angeles
Historic-Cultural Monument No. 486. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1979
; United
States Geological Survey 1953.

Los Angeles City Market, Los Angeles County.
Los Angeles City Market, the Chinese-owned wholesale produce market, is located at Ninth
Street and San Pedro Street in th
e City of Los Angeles. The need for such a market dates to 1880.
At that time, more than 90 percent of the vegetable peddlers in the city were Chinese. Their
dissatisfaction
with the existing wholesale produce market prompted interest in creating a place
where they had control of the market facilities. To do this, it was necessary to build a new
marke
tplace. Two thousand shares were sold to help finance the endeavor. The Chinese
accounted for the largest
individual share holdings. The facility opened in 1909. Farmers, jobbers
and brokers operated from within sta
lls that were either indoors or out of doors. The ebb and
flo
w of Chinese dominance in the produce market continued for many years. But, by the late
1980's
, only nine Chinese companies remained. This resulted from fewer Chinese being engaged
in the produce business and the emergence of a new market nearby. See Compton Chinatown,
L
os Angeles County. Reference: Yee and Yee 1986: 5-17

Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument No. 486, Los Angeles County.
Located in Evergreen Cemetery of Boyle Heights, the historic-cultural monument is actually a
Chinese cemetery shrine assemblage. It consists of two furnaces, a stone altar and protective
wrought iron fence. The furnaces were used to bum paper clothing and other symbolic items as
a wa
y to help the deceased in the other world. The altar was the place for offerings and
ceremonial activities. One furnace bears an inscription
"September, 1888." Thus, the shrine is
the oldest existing edifice of the Chinese in Los Angeles
, prompting it to be designated a Los
Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument by the Los Angeles City Council in 1990. To restore and
preserve the shrine, the Chinese Historical Society of Southern California purchased the shrine
and
42 surrounding grave plots in 1992. Ch'ing Ming was celebrated at the shrine until the 1960's
and reintroduced in
1997 when the newly-restored shrine was rededicated. Reference: Bloch
1991; P
erez 1993. Photo.

Los Angeles Massacre Site, Los Angeles County.
Los Angeles Massacre Site was in Los Angeles Old Chinatown. The massacre occurred because
of a dispute bet
ween two rival groups of Chinese on October 24, 1871 and produced an early-day
urban riot. During the riot, one non-Chinese man was killed and 18-22 Chinese were lynched.
The murders, burning and looting of Old Chinatown b
y non-Chinese resulted in the apprehension and indictment of 150 people. Six non-Chinese were sentenced to jail. See Los Angeles Old Chinatown, Los Angeles County. Reference: Wells 1962: 67-68

Los Angeles Old Chinatown, Los Angeles County.
The Chinese of Los Angeles initially lived along Negro Alley next to the Plaza. A fire in 1870
caused many to relocate to an area of old vineyards next to the Los Angeles River a short
distance away. By 1890, an influx of Chinese into the area resulted in Los Angeles Old
Chinatown. Its geographic center was Apablasa Street and Alameda Street. Subsequent growth
saw the Chinese population increase to about 2,000 individuals by 1900. The area became a town within Los Angeles. It offered its Chinese residents employment opportunities and services such as a Chinese language telephone system and newspaper, medical care and recreational activities among others
. By 1936, the Chinese were dispersed when the community was obliterated to make way for today's Union Station Passenger Terminal. Artifacts of Los Angeles Old Chinatown, obtained from an archaeological excavation in 1989 and 1991, are housed by the Chinese Historical Society of Southern California. See China City, Los Angeles County; Lo Sang, Los Angeles County; Los Angeles Chinatown Heritage and Visitors Center, Los Angeles County; New Chinatown, Los Angeles County. Reference: Greenwood 1995: 41-42; Kronzek 1993: 21-81; Kronzek and Greenwood 1996: 5-40.

Lugo Adobe, Los Angeles County.
Lugo Adobe was a part of Los Angeles Old Chinatown. California noted its importance with a
plaque stating,
"The Lugo Adobe, said to have been built in the 1840's by Don Vicente Lugo, was one of the very few two story houses in the pueblo of Los Angeles. In 1867, Lugo donated this house on the plaza to St. Vincent's School (Forerunner of Loyola University). From the 1880's until it was razed in 1951, the building was occupied by the Chinese." The site is California Historic Landmark No. 301. See Los Angeles Old Chinatown, Los Angeles County. Reference:Office of Historic Preservation 1990: 90.

Mann's Grauman's Chinese Theater, Los Angeles County.
Although not a Chinese place, Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood, reflects Sid Grauman's interest in the architectural trend of using exotic designs for theaters. The idea may have originated with the 1922 archaeological discoveries in Egypt. The Grauman Chinese Theater, designed by Meyer and Holler, was an oriental temple stage-set taken from a silent movie. Its interior design drew upon the ornate motifs of early Chinese dynasties. Opening in 1927, it fulfilled Grauman's vision. Remodeled, the theater seats 2,200 people in several individual theaters within the larger structure. The theater is Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument No. 55. Reference: Maylor 1987: 25, 208-209. 

Mei Sun's Historic Pioneer Gate, Los Angeles County.
Mei Sun, prominent Chinese American artist, constructed a metal sculpture on Adobe Street,
Greater Los Angeles Chinatown
, in the late 1980's. Commissioned by the City of Los Angeles,
the sculpture is made of steel, displaying shovels and a series of plaques that give a story of early Chinese in Los Angeles. The sculpture is part of a fence around a portion of a parking lot. Photo.

Monterey Park, Los Angeles County.

Since the 1970's, recent immigrants who settled in the town of Monterey Park were not merely
sojourners
, as were many during the 1800's. Rather, the new arrivals came to stay, embark on a
career and raise a family
. This resulted in Monterey Park becoming the first suburban Chinatown in the United States as shown by the 1986 Census count: more than 50 per cent of the population were Chinese. Of note is the idea that when the word "Monterey" is written phonetically in the Chinese language, the characters themselves read "covered with pecial/great profit." Reference: Arax, April, 1987: 1; Arax, September 4, 1987: 1; Cheng 1993; Salter 1984: 15-20,28.

New Chinatown, Los Angeles County.

New Chinatown, 943-951 N. Broadway, City of Los Angeles, resulted from the destruction of the last buildings in Los Angeles Old Chinatown in 1936. Several members of the community decided to establish a business area in which they would own the land upon which they lived and worked. The idea took the form of the New Chinatown Corporation. Purchasing land from the Santa Fe Railroad, the corporation constructed an open and airy retail complex about one-half mile from Los Angeles Old Chinatown, It was designed to attract the tourist trade. A gala opening held on June 25, 1938 helped the venture be an immediate success. An extension was added in the 1950's. Several street names within the development reflect important aspects of China. The names are:

Bamboo Lane
Gin Ling Way
Lei Min Way
Jung Jing Road
Mei Ling Wa
y
Sun Mun Way

The street names located in the 1950 addition represent the significance of Chungking to the
Nationalists during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). The names are:

Chungking Court
Chungking Road

See Los Angeles Chinatown, Los Angeles County; Los Angeles Old Chinatown, Los Angeles
County
; Peter Soo Hoo/Herbert Lapham Statue, Los Angeles County.

New Chinatown Wishing Well, Los Angeles County.
New Chinatown Wishing Well is in the central plaza of New Chinatown, 943-951 N. Broadway, City of Los Angeles. The sculptured public art was done by Liu Hong Kay and completed in 1939. The functioning wishing well is a representation of a place in Guangdong Province, China. Reference: Cheng and Munson Kwok 1988.

Nineteenth Century Cemetery Shrine, Los Angeles County.
This is an alternate name for Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument No. 486. See Los
Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument No. 486
, Los Angeles County.

Pacific Asia Museum/Grace Nicholson's Treasure House of Oriental and Western Art, Los
Angeles County.

Pacific Asia Museum, completed in 1929, follows the Chinese Imperial Treasure House/Court-
yard style of architecture. The style was prevalent
in China from the Nineteenth Century to the
early Twentieth Century and includes examples such as the Pa
lace of Fine Arts in Beijing, China and the National History Museum of Taipei, Taiwan. The building is the only known structure in California of the early Twentieth Century to combine commercial art dealership with a formally designed, planned and built the proto-museum. The architecture firm of Marston, VanPelt and Maybury designed the facility for Grace Nicholson, a prominent art dealer. Its first and second floors were intended to become a state of the art museum. She operated it as an art store specializing in Asian and European art items from 1929 through 1942. Upon her death, it was deeded to the City of Pasadena. The city leased it to the Pasadena Art Museum; thus, it came to fulfill its design purpose. Since 1970, it has been the Pacific Asia Museum. The building is California Historic Landmark No. 988 and has been nominated to the National Historic Registry. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1988; United States Department of the Interior 1976. 


Party at Lan-Ting Mural, Los Angeles County.

Party at Lan-Ting Mural is public art on the College Street side of the Los Angeles Chinatown Library, 639 N. Hill Street, City of Los Angeles. According to a plaque at the site, the mural depicts the famous calligrapher Wang Xi Zhi of the Jin Dynasty. Wang Xi Zhi helped lay the foundation for the development of modem Chinese calligraphy by bridging the transition from ancient to modem Chinese characters. The mural was done by Shi Yan Zhong in 1990-1991. Photo.

Pasadena Chinatown, Los Angeles County.
Pasadena Chinatown started around Mills Alley in the City of Pasadena as an agricultural
community in the early 1880's. By November 1885, anti-Chinese sentiment reached a point where 100 non-Chinese drove the Chinese out of the Chinatown. Some of the displaced people relocated to Raymond Hill. Reference: Lawton 1987 "Riverside's First Chinatown": 43,48, 80.

Peter Soo Hoo/Herbert Lapham Plaque, Los Angeles County.
The development of a new commercial area for Chinese displaced by the destruction of Los
Angeles Old Chinatown is attributable to two individuals: Peter Soo Hoo and Herbert Lapham.
Soo Hoo, a Los Angeles Old Chinatown merchant, rallied others around the idea of building a
modem economic enterprise that would serve the tourist trade. Lapham
, associated with the
railroad yard that would become New Chinatown, helped the Chinese obtain ownership of the
land. The plaque commemorating their effort is in the courtyard of New Chinatown, 943-951 N. Broadway, City of Los Angeles. See New Chinatown, Los Angeles County
. Reference: Wong 1988: 25.

Phoenix Bakery, Los Angeles County.
In business for over 50 years, the Phoenix Bakery at 969 N. Broadway, city of Los Angeles, is the first continuously-owned and operated Chinese American bakery in Southern California. Its award winning cakes and pastries make it a premiere retail bakery while its strawberry whipped cream sponge cakes sell in the thousands during a weekend. Its reputation stems from many original recipes, word-of-mouth referrals and involvement with community activities. Reference: Chan and Wong 1990: 35-39. 

Pomona Chinatown, Los Angeles County.
In existence by the late 1880's, Pomona Chinatown, City of Pomona, was another of the small
Chinatowns associated with the Inland Citrus Belt
. It was located north of the railroad tracks
between Elizabeth Street and Gordon Street
. There were two laundries, stores and a dwelling.
Reference: Lawton 1987
"Riverside's First Chinatown": 91.

Saint Bridget's Catholic Chinese Center, Los Angeles County.
Catholic missionary work occurred early in Los Angeles Old Chinatown. But, it was not until
1940 that a permanent structure was built for the mission. Located at 510 Cottage Home Street,
it serves Catholic and non-Catholic Chinese while acting as a way station for new immigrants
One service is given in Cantonese and another in English with a Cantonese translationReference: Crews, Chan and Louie 1990: 1-23.

San Fernando Railroad Tunnel, Los Angeles County.
San Fernando Railroad Tunnel is located just northwest of the junction of Highway 14 and
Interstate 5. One thousand Chinese
workers, out of a total of 1,500, helped bore the 6,975 foot- long tunnel in 1875 that completed the Southern Pacific Railroad link to Central California. The unstable rock, subterranean water and poor air quality in the tunnel made its construction hazardous and slow. See Lang Station, Los Angeles County. Reference: Nadeau 1965: 127-131.

San Pedro Chinese Business Area, Los Angeles County.
The San Pedro Chinese business area in the town of San Pedro was along Beacon Street and
ext
ended from Fourth Street to Sixth Street. In May 1886, there were three laundries and one
d
welling. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1886b. 

Shanghai Street, Los Angeles County.
The distinctive Shanghai Street neon sign and dragon statues on Ord Street were one of the last
vestiges of China Cit
y. It marked the entrance into a multi storied building that housed many
smal
l shops and vendor stalls selling Chinese merchandise. It may well have been one of the
earlies
t enclosed retail malls. Demolition of the building in 1997 resulted in the entrance being
lost
. However, the neon sign was reinstalled on the new structure. Thus, there is a reminder of
a historic presence.
See China City, Los Angeles County. Reference: News and Notes 1997: 3.

Sun Yat-sen Statue, Los Angeles County.
A statue of Dr. Sun Yat-sen sits in the courtyard facing out the East Gate of New Chinatown.
The public art was placed there as a tribute to the person many feel is the father of the Republic of China. Reference: Wong 1988: 25Photo.

The 19th Century Los Angeles Chinese Cemetery Shrine Historical Monument, Los Angeles County.
This is an additional name for Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument No. 468. See Los
Angeles H
istoric-Cultural Monument No. 468, Los Angeles County.

Tile Panels. Los Angeles County.
The public art tile panels are on the street side of a building at 913 N. Broadway, City of Los Angeles. All three were constructed in Hong Kong and installed in 1965. The left panel is in the Sung Dynasty style and it titled "Picture of Viewing Waterfalls in Summer Mountains." The middle panel is titled "Palace in Heaven." The third panel, in the Southern China style,  is "Four Beauties Catching Swimming Fish. Reference: Wallach 2011.

Twin Dragon Gateway. Los Angeles County.
Twin Dragon Gateway is an alternate name for Chinatown Gateway Monument. See Chinatown Gateway Monument, Los Angeles County.

Untitled Mural, Los Angeles County.
The untitled mural is at Castelar Elementary School, 840 Yale street, City of Los Angeles. The public art was painted by Leo Politi in 1976-1977 and depicts five children dancing in a circle. Reference: Wallach 2011.

West Gate, Los Angeles County.
West Gate is on the western edge of New Chinatown on Hill Street, City of Los Angeles. It was
the first gat
e to be built and displays a tablet dedicated by Governor Frank Merriem indicating
the signifi
cance of Chinese railroad laborers. See East Gate, Los Angeles County. Reference:
Wong 1988: 23.

Orange County

Anaheim Chinatown, Orange County.
Anaheim Chinatown was located between Los Angeles Street (now Anaheim Boulevard) and
Lemon Street facing Chartes Str
eet, in the City of Anaheim. It was the home of workers in the emerging grape growing industry by 1866. In that year, the industry produced 400,000 gallons 
of wine. As the area around Anaheim developed, the Chinese worked on water projects (1860's)
and railroad construction (1870's). They also labored in the orchards and came to dominate the
vegetable market by the late 1880's. The Chinatown's growth and de
cline paralleled that of the
citrus and vine
yard agriculture activities. The death of Sam Loo in 1935, Anaheim Chinatown's
last resident
, marked the end of the community. Reference: Begert 1993: 55-56; Lawton 1987
"A Selected ... ": 68; Lin 1990: 35-36.

China Cove Beach, Orange County.
China Cove Beach is a pair of small sandy coves along the harbor channel near Balboa Island,
City of Newport Beach. It is at Ocean Boulevard and Fernleaf Street. Stairs lead down to the
beach. Reference: California Coastal Access Guide 1984
: 71. 

China Trail, Orange County.
In about 1889, Chinese laborers built a road from the head of Aliso Canyon to a lead and silver
mine in Santiago Can
yon within Cleveland National Forest. Their labor prompted it to be known
as China Trail. The road is also kno
wn as Morrow Trail, after the one-time owner of the mine.
Reference
: Meadows 1966: 102, 110.

Earl Fruit Company/Westminster Fields, Orange County.
The Earl Fruit Company brought Chinese market gardeners from Los Angeles into present-day
Westminster to develop a celery growing area. The marshy area was drained b
y ditches and
drains. The excess wa
ter was carried away by digging twelve foot deep canals into Alamitos Bay.
Reference: Lin 1990: 35.

Garden Grove Chinatown, Orange County.
Garden Grove Chinatown was in the City of Garden Grove. It was a small settlement with its
residents working in the nearby citrus industry. Only one Chinese still lived there in 1910
.
Reference: Lin 1990: 36.

Orange Chinatown, Orange County.
Orange Chinatown, City of Orange, was located on the north side of Orange Street between
Chapman Street and Walnut Street. It t
ypifies the development of a small Chinatown throughout
the Inland Citrus Belt of Southern California. Starting in the 1880's and reaching its highest
population in 1890
, Orange Chinatown was the living area of the workers who helped expand
the citrus industry
. Once the fields were cleared and the trees planted, there Was a decreased need
for workers. Therefore, the laborers moved elsewhere and the Chinatown was essentially gone
by 1910. Reference: Lawton 1987 "Riverside's First Chinatown": 42; Lin 1990
: 29, 36; Sanborn
Insurance Map 1887c.

Placencia Chinatown, Orange County.
Placencia Chinatown, developed in the 1880's in the community of Placencia, reached its peak
population in 1890. Residents worked in the emerging citrus industr
y while others found employ-
ment at nearby vegetable farms. Reference
: Lawton 1987 "Riverside's First Chinatown": 42.

 Santa Ana Chinatown, Orange County.
Santa Ana Chinatown was located on the south side of Third Street between Main Street and
Bush Street
, just east of Old Santa Ana City Hall. Established around 1884, its residents were
an important source of labor for the local agriculture industry
. Even so, those not of Chinatown
complained that it was an unattractive place by the mid-1880's.
When a Chinese male was found
dying of leprosy in Chinatown, the Cit
y Council condemned the area and ordered all buildings
and contents burned on May 25
, 1906. As a result, approximately 200 residents were displaced.
Reference: Gould 1990: 5-16; Lin 1990: 36
.

Savi Tunnel, Orange County.
The Savi Tunnel is of note because of its role in helping make agriculture and settlement possible
in Orange County. It was mostly Chinese laborers
who dug the tunnel in 1876. The tunnel
brought water to the citrus growers on the east side of the Santa Ana River
. Although it collapsed
in 1892
, it was rebuilt and is still in use today. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1976:
109.

Tustin Chinatown, Orange County.
Tustin Chinatown was a short-lived Chinese community in the town of Tustin that thrived from
1880 to 1890. It was the home for many citrus industr
y workers. By 1910, there were no Chinese
living there. Reference: La
wton 1987 "Riverside's First Chinatown": 42; Lin 1990: 36.

 Riverside County

Blythe Chinese Business Area, Riverside County.
The Chinese business area of Blythe was near the corner of Main Street and Hobson Way. A
small cluster identifiable in 1917 consisted of a store
, laundry and restaurant. By 1926, it had
grown to include the Hotel Lee. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1917b
, 1926.

Chee Kung Tong Temple, Riverside County.
Chee Kung Tong Temple was located on the north end of Mongol Street in Riverside Second
Chinatown. It was in the second story above the Chee Kung Tong headquarters
. The temple was
dedicated to Kuan Kung (Kwan Kung), a deity honored by the Chee King Tong and local
merchants
. The building was constructed in 1900 and destroyed by fire around 1920. It was not
rebuilt
. See Mongol Street, Riverside County; Riverside Second Chinatown, Riverside County.
Reference: Lawton 1987 "Riverside's First Chinatown"
: 33-34.

Chino Canyon, Riverside County.
Chino Canyon in the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation is not related to the Chinese. Rather, the
canyon was named after Pedro Chino who was a Cahuilla Indian. When he died on No
vember
25, 1939, he was considered to have been the oldest living man in the United States. He was 126
years old. The canyon is the site of the aerial tram of Palm Springs
. It is accessible from Highway
111
. Reference: Gunther 1984: 110; United States Geological Survey 1972

Little Gom Benn, Riverside County.
Initially, the Chinese came to Riverside as agricultural workers. Many immigrated from Gom
Benn, a village on the Pearl River in China
. Therefore, Riverside Second Chinatown was often
called Little Gom Benn
. It covered seven acres and was located in Tequesquite Arroyo with
Mongol Street as its main thoroughfare. It had a joss house, tong headquarters
, stores, and
residential structures
, all made of brick or wood. At its peak, its permanent resident population
numbered between 350 and 400. See Chee Kung Tong Temple, Riverside County;  Mongol
Street, Riverside County
; Riverside Second Chinatown, Riverside County. Reference: Riverside
Municipal Museum 1991
.

Mira Lorna Chinatown, Riverside County.
Mira Lorna Chinatown in the community of Mira Lorna was another of the Inland Citrus Belt
Chinatowns
. Like many others, it lasted from about 1880 to 1890 when the need for large
numbers of workers decreased. Reference: Lawton 1987 "Riverside's First Chinatown": 42
.

Mongol Street, Riverside County.
The street name appears on a Sanborn Insurance Map that depicts Riverside Second Chinatown
about 1908. On the map
, the placename is noted as "arbitrary." As in other areas of the state, the
notation may indicate that the street was generally known as Mongol, although it had not been
officially designated as such
. It was the street along which most the Chinese residents lived.
Reference: Riverside Municipal Museum 1991: 3.

Riverside Second Chinatown, Riverside County.
Riverside Second Chinatown, City of Riverside, was clearly evident by 1885. It was located in
Tequesquite Arroyo on land o
wned by a Euro American. The land was purchased from him on
December 31, 1887 by the partnership of Wong Nim, Wong Gee and Chen Duey
. Wong Nim
claimed to have been born in Alameda County in 1852. Therefore
, he was a citizen of the United States and could legally own property. Riverside Second Chinatown had a population
between 350-400
. During harvest season there would be as many as 2,500 with the
migrant Chinese laborers living in tents placed next to permanent structures
. The last business
in Riverside Second Chinatown closed
in 1938 and its last resident died in 1974. Soon after that, the few buildings left were destroyed. All seven acres of Chinatown were declared historically significant by the County of Riverside Board of Supervisors on January 15, 1968. It was approved by the State Office of Historic Preservation as a California Point of Historic Interest on January 24, 1968 and designated Cultural Heritage Landmark No. 19 by the City of Riverside in 1974. Today, the eastern portion of the land is occupied by the Riverside County Office of Education. Distinctive landscaping and a commemorative plaque at Tequesquite Avenue and Pine Street mark the site. See Little Gom Benn, Riverside County; Mongol Street, Riverside County; Wong Way, Riverside County. Reference: Chace 1992; Lawton 1987 "Riverside's First Chinatown": 49-50, 135; Riverside Municipal Museum 1991. Photo.

Temecula Chinatown, Riverside County.
Temecula Chinatown, City of Temecula, was the temporary home of about 2,000 Chinese
laborers who labored on the California Southern Railroad. The
y worked at wood cutting and
blasting of a railroad right-of-way through Temecula Canyon to the town of Fallbrook
. The harsh working conditions prompted the Chinese to threaten to quit if conditions were not improved. Completion of the project saw many Chinese stay in the area. See Sorrento Grade, San Diego County. Reference: Middlebrook 1964: 10.

Wong Way, Riverside County.
Wong Leun Ho, known as George Wong, came to Riverside from China in 1914. He worked
with his father in the vegetable business and attended
school to include the community college.
A prominent member of the larger Riverside community, he owned several acres of land in the
Riverside Second Chinatown
. In 1961, development was occurring in the area of George's home
with a short new street being built. The city council named the street after George "
... half
humorously and half in genuine respect for a part of local histor
y ...." Reference: Ganahl 1975:
62-63; Patterson 1964
: 47-48.

 San Bernardino County

Barstow Chinese Business Area, San Bernardino County.
The Chinese business area in the town of Barstow was on the north side of Main Street near the
railroad freight office
. In August of 1917, there was a restaurant with a meeting hall upstairs and one laundry nearby. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1917a.

Brookside Winery, San Bernardino County.

There were 30 Chinese who worked at the Brookside Winery in Redlands while it was in
operation from 1882 to 1914
. They made bricks and constructed barns, wine cellars and houses. See Chinese Bunk House, San Bernardino County. Reference: Wey 1988: 135-136.



Calico Chinatown, San Bernardino County.

Founded in 1884, Calico had a population of more than 4,000, mostly miners. It had a sizable
Chinatown where the Chinese workers and laborers lived
. A small rebellion by them against
harassment by non-Chinese brought the unjust treatment to an end. A decrease in sil
ver prices
marked the demise of Calico and its Chinatown in the 1890's. Reference
: Mellen 1952: 357-359; Nadeau 1992: 276-279; Richards 1977.



China House, San Bernardino County.

China House is the last surviving structure of Cucamonga Chinatown, City of Cucamonga. It is
located at what was the east end of the Chinatown. Originally a Chinese-run store
, it presently
is a private residence. See Cucamonga Chinatown, San Bernardino County
. Reference: Office
of Historic Preservation 1987
.



China Spring, San Bernardino County.

China Spring is about one mile south of the community of Mountain Pass on Highway 15. In the past, the area was the site of extensive tunnel and shaft mining. Presently, there are many open pit mines. Reference: United States Geological Survey 1983



Chinaman's Knoll, San Bernardino County.

Chinaman's Knoll appears to have gained its name from the Chinese who were conducting placer mining operations at that site. The knoll is in Holcomb Valley, the location of one of the largest gold strike in the region. Starting in 1860, the valley became dotted with placer mines, small communities, sawmills and stamp mills. A rough and tumble mining area, it experienced 50 murders between 1860 and 1862 alone. Four convicted murderers were hanged simultaneously from the same tree. After the placer gold began to disappear, hard rock mining of gold-bearing quartz veins began. This type of mining involved following a vein of quartz beneath the surface by digging tunnels and shafts. By the late 1870's, the mines closed and the miners moved on. Reference: Walchli 1994: 3-4.



Chinese Bunk House, San Bernardino County.

Chinese Bunk House is where the Chinese lived who worked at the Brookside Winery in the late 1800's. It is a one-story structure made of redwood planks and still exists. See Brookside Winery,San Bernardino County. Reference: Wey 1988: 135-136.

City of Chino, San Bernardino County.
In that the Spanish word "Chino" may refer in some manner to the Chinese, the origin and
meaning of the city name has received considerable attention. In terms of its origin, it may be
that a Spaniard from Mexico came
into the present-day Chino area shortly after Jesuit priests
ventured through in the late 1700's
. He established a cattle ranch and named it Chino after hisranch in Sinaloa, Mexico. The word is thought to be a Sinaloan Indian term meaning "little 
sparkling water." By 1810, the Fathers at nearby San Gabriel Mission wrote about a stock farm
in the area
. They said that it appeared to be well established. It may have been the same ranch
founded b
y the individual from Sinola. On the other hand, the name may derive from the noted missionary, Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, whose Italian surname has several spellings: Chino, Chini and Chiners. Thus, it is usually thought that the placename was derived from an earlier name, one that predated the arrival of Don Antonio Maria Lugo, the individual most often associated with the placename. Lugo, born in California, is said to have established a rancho in the area with the Governor officially granting him the land in 1841, though he had been there earlier. Confusion about the name of his rancho and variations of its name, prompted it to be renamed Rancho Santa Ana del Chino. The common name for the rancho became simply ChinoLater, the name was applied to the sugar beet town built on the rancho. The town expanded, becoming the City of Chino. The meaning of the word Chino is as unclear as its origin. For example, Spanish use of the term dates to at least 1583 and meant China. By the eighteenth century, Chino had become a popular given name among the Spanish. Presently, three commonly used Spanish dictionaries and a Spanish placename study give the meaning as China. However, they also state other meanings: belonging to China; the Chinese language; a simple mind; the descendant of an Indian and Negro or a mulatto and a Negro or a mestizo. The Enciclopedia Universal lists similar definitions and suggests that when used in Mexico, the term denotes curly hair; a smooth round stone and smooth bald land or hills.

Colton Chinatown, San Bernardino County.
Colton Chinatown, town of Colton, was between H Street and I Street and was bounded by Conn Street and Willis Street next to the Southern Pacific Railroad tracks by 1878. It contained four laundries in 1884 but all was gone by 1894. The major employers of the Chinese who had lived there were nearby farmers, a cannery and brick factory. Reference: Lawton 1987 "A Selected . . . .": 68, 87; Sanborn Insurance Map 1884, 1894.

Cucamonga Chinatown, San Bernardino County.
With a maximum population of about 100 in the early 1890's, Cucamonga Chinatown was
located along San Bernardino Road between Klusman Avenue and Hellman A
venue, City of
Cucamonga. It was another of the Inland Citrus Belt communities where Chinese agricultural
workers lived
. Changes in the labor force and restrictive legislation caused the population to
decrease to about one half dozen by 1910. A fire destroyed most of the buildings and spirit of
the Chinatown in 1919. The last Chinese resident died in 1939. Cucamonga Chinato
wn is a
California Point of His
torical Interest. See China House, San Bernardino County. Reference:
Lawton 1989 "Riverside's First Chinatown": 42; Lawton 1987 "A Selected .... ": 118,132;
Office of Historic Preservation 1975.

Needles Chinatown, San Bernardino County.
By the 1880's, Needles Chinatown within the town of Needles was located between Front Street
and Second Street and was bounded by C Street and E Street
. It contained four laundries and was the home to the Chinese laborers who helped build the infrastructure of the eastern portion of the county. When construction was finished, most moved on. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1896. 

Oriental Avenue, San Bernardino County.
Oriental Avenue was the center of Redlands Chinatown, City of Redlands. See Redlands
Chinatown
, San Bernardino County. Reference: Lawton 1987 "A Selected .... “: 78,90.

Redlands Chinatown, San Bernardino County.
Established between 1885 and 1889, Redlands Chinatown was centered on Oriental Avenue and Citrus Avenue, extending along Orange Avenue within City of Redlands. Between 200 and 300 Chinese workers were employed in the local citrus industry. The Chinese began vegetable gardening, eventually providing all the vegetables to the town of Redlands. Anti-Chinese sentiment became so strong by September 1, 1893, that National Guardsmen and armed volunteer citizens patrolled Chinatown to keep it safe for the Chinese. Redlands Chinatown disappeared when the railroad purchased the land upon which it was built. Reference: Horton 1957: 19-20; Lawton 1987 "Riverside's First Chinatown,": 41; Lawton 1987 "A Selected .... ,": 78,90,97.

San Bernardino Chinatown, San Bernardino County.
San Bernardino Chinatown was located in the downtown business district of the City of San Bernardino by 1876. However, a series of arrests prompted the Chinese to leave the area. By 1881, San Bernardino Chinatown had been reestablished around Third Street and Mountain View. It started in that location because Wong Nim had set up a labor contract agency there. Eventually, he operated a general merchandise store and temple in Chinatown. The last of San Bernardino Chinatown's buildings were demolished in 1959-1960 during a city redevelopment project. See San Bernardino Temple, San Bernardino County; Second Riverside Chinatown, Riverside County. Reference: Lawton 1987 "Riverside's First Chinatown": 50-51; Lawton 1987, "A Selected .... ,": 64, 68, 94, 133.

San Bernardino Temple, San Bernardino County.
Having moved several times within San Bernardino, San Bernardino Temple eventually found a permanent home at 203 Third Street, City of San Bernardino. The first temple in the county, it persisted from the 1870's to 1941. The temple featured Kuan Yin, the Goddess of Mercy. See San Bernardino Chinatown, San Bernardino County. Reference: Lawton 19 87, "Riverside' s First Chinatown,": 38-42.

Upland Chinatown, San Bernardino County.
The town of Upland, originally known as North Ontario, had an established Chinatown by 1893. It was similar to other Chinatowns in Southern California in that its residents worked in the Inland Citrus Belt. A fire in 1915 destroyed the last three buildings of Upland Chinatown. Reference: Lawton 1987 "A Selected .... ": 101, 126.

Yucaipa Chinatown, San Bernardino County.
Yucaipa Chinatown, City of Yucaipa, was an agricultural community where its residents grew vegetables on 100 acres of land. It started in the 1890's, possibly by Wong Soo and Charley Lung. It continued until the 1920's. Reference: Lawton 1987 "Riverside's First Chinatown": 42.

San Diego County

Almond Blossom Gardens, San Diego County.
Almond Blossom Gardens, Mission Valley at Texas Street, City of San Diego, started in 1870. Horn Gah Then and brother Horn Gah Gim began growing fruits and vegetables at that time. In 1915, the family business became a wholesale produce company. It continues today as David Produce Company located at 416 Sixth Avenue, City of San Diego. Reference: Fung 1998: 15.

Asian/Pacific Thematic Historic District, San Diego County.
Asian/Pacific Thematic Historic District encompasses two distinct areas, the Gaslamp Quarter
and the Marina area. Established by the Cit
y of San Diego in 1987, it covers eight city blocks and
includes 20 structures
. The Marina area, centered along Third Street, is the site of San Diego
Chinatown and includes the San Diego Chinese Historical Museum
, See San Diego Chinatown,
San Diego Count
y; San Diego Chinese Historical Museum, San Diego County. Reference:
"Asian/Pacific Thematic Historic District" 1999.

China Point, San Diego County.
China Point is a historic Chinese fishing camp site on land protruding into San Diego Bay on the
east side of Point Lorna
. It is about halfway between the old quarantine station and the fort. The
place was noted for its good fishing, especially lobster and eel
. Reference: Donodson, n.d.

Chinese Community Church, San Diego County.
The Chinese Community Church located at 1750 47th Street, City of San Diego, traces its origin
to the Chinese Mission Schoo
l of 1885. See Chinese Mission School, San Diego County

Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association Building, San Diego County.
Located at 428 Third Avenue, City of San Diego, the building has been used by the Chinese
since 1883 when it was a Taoist Temple
. The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association
moved into the building in 1907. It was important because of a lack of associations and guilds
that could represent the Chinese to the larger communit
y. The building was dismantled in 1911
and a brick one put in its place
. Through the years, the structure has been a meeting hall and
Cantonese language school
. In 1972, it became a service center for the elderly and still functions
as a focal point for many Chinese Americans of San Diego. The building has been determined
to be eligible for listing in the National Registry of Historic Places. See Chung Wah School, San
Diego County; San Diego Chinese Center
, San Diego County. Reference: Asian/Pacific
Thematic Historic District 1999
: 1; Fung 1989: 52; Ying 1998: 69; Wey 1988: 149.

Chinese Fishing and Ship Building Site, San Diego County.
Chinese Fishing and Ship Building Site was along the La Playa Trail, south of San Diego on Point Loma. Occupied from the 1860's to 1890's, the site centered on drying and salting of fish. The construction of junks occurred at the shoreline. The three masted junk, Sun Yun Lee, was launched in 1884 and was said to be of particular note. Reference: Kirchen 2015.

Chinese Mission School, San Diego County.
Chinese Mission School was founded by the American Missionary Association who rented
a house for the mission at 631 First Avenue
, City of San Diego, in 1885. The mission's purpose
was to provide instruction in English and the Christian faith
. By the end of 1885, there were 45
Chinese enrolled with the number increasing to 105 in 1887.
The Congregation Church took over
from the American Missionary Association in 1890. Outgrowing its facilities and concern over
its geographic location, the school moved several times bet
ween 1885 and 1907. However, in
1907 it settled at 645 First Avenue. In 1927, a new facility was built at that location. By 1945,
the name of the church was changed to Chinese Congregation Church, signaling that it was its
own church
. Yet another name change took place in 1950-it became the Chinese Community
Church to indicate its non-denominational status. In order to be at the center of its dispersed
congregation, a new structure was built at 1750 47th Street, City of San Diego, in 1960.The
building at 645 First Avenue was moved and became the Chinese Historical Museum. See
Chinese Historical Museum, San Diego County. Reference
: Fung 1989: 23-28, 30-37, 89;
MacPhail Vol
. 23: 11-12, 15-16, 19-20.

Chinese Runway, San Diego County.
When Chinese migration to the United States was severely restricted in 1882, many immigrants  were brought to Mexican port cities. From there, they would be smuggled across the Mexico- United States border in remote areas at night. The route(s) were known as Chinese Runway. An identifiable portion is today's Happy Valley, located between Pala and Temecula. Reference: Fritz 1994: 15-16.

Chinese School of San Diego, San Diego County.
Chinese School of San Diego has its origin in the Chung Wah School. See Chung Wah School, San Diego County.

Chung Hwa School, San Diego County.
Chung Hwa School is derived from Chung Wah School. See Chung Wah School, San Diego County.

Chung Wah School, San Diego County.
Chung Wah School was opened in March 1937 and offered instruction in the Chinese language under the auspices of the Consolidated Chinese Benevolent Association (CCBA). Classes were held in the CCBA building at 426 Third Avenue, City of San Diego. The school was reorganized and sponsored by the Chinese Community Church and the CCBA in 1959. However, its doors were closed in 1964. Yet, it was once again revitalized and became the Chung Hwa School of San Diego, separate from the Chinese Community Church. It continues to this day although it is known as the Chinese School of San Diego. See Chinese Mission School, San Diego County. Reference: Fung 1989: 52, 93, 107.

Gim Wing Store, San Diego County.
Gim Wing Store on Island Street, City of San Diego, was the first grocery store in San Diego Chinatown. See San Diego Chinatown, San Diego County; Woo Chee Chong, San Diego County. Reference: Fung 1989: 17.

Hall of China, San Diego County.
Hall of China was the original name of one of the Houses of Pacific Relations at the California- Pacific International Exposition held in Balboa Park in 1935-36. The name was changed to House of China when the facility was turned over to the community at the end of the exposition. See House of China, San Diego County.

Hop Lee Chong Laundry Building, San Diego County.
Hop Lee Chong Laundry Building is on the east side of Fourth Avenue between Market Street and Island Avenue, City of San Diego. The laundry occupied the south half of the building starting in  1923 when the building was built. It persisted until 1964. The north half of the building also had Chinese businesses with residences on the second floor. Reference: Tajiuna 2012. 

House of China, San Diego County.
House of China at 842 Market Street, City of San Diego, was part of the 1935-36 California-
Pacific International Exposition held in Balboa Park
. Originally known as the Hall of China, it
opened at the exposition on May 23, 1935. The Chinese Youth Association of the Chinese
Mission School maintained and staffed the facility
. With a change in name to that of House of
China and a dedication of bringing programs of Chinese art, dance, drama, music and friendship into the San Diego community, it continues to the present
. See Chinese Mission School, San Diego County. Reference: MacPhail vol. 23: 17; Ying 1998: 71

Julian Chinatown, San Diego County.
Placer gold was discovered in the area of Julian in 1869. The need for laborers in the mines
prompted the Julian Chinatown. More workers were required when tunnel and shaft mining
techniques began in 1870. By June of 1870, anti-Chinese sentiment resulted in a Chinese being killed. This provoked a response by the entire county who protested the lawlessness and unjust act
. Reference: Fritz 1994: 6; Nadeau 1992: 266-269.

Nanking Cafe, San Diego County.
Nanking Cafe at 467 Fifth Avenue, City of San Diego, was one of the first restaurants in San
Diego Chinatown. It is still in business
. See San Diego Chinatown, San Diego County.
Reference: Fung 1989: 17
.

National City Chinese Business Area, San Diego County.
Located on the north side of Eighth Avenue between Seventeenth Street and Eighteenth Street
in the community of National City, the Chinese business area consisted of two laundries in
January of 1887. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1887b
.

Quin Building, San Diego County.
Quin Building is located at 433 Third Avenue, City of San Diego. The structure was moved from 16th and L Street to its current location about 1890. The Quin  family operated a produce business there starting in 1914. Ah Quin purchased the building in 1930 and was said to be the unofficial mayor of San Diego Chinatown. Reference: Whittle 2012.

Quong Building, San Diego County.
Quong Building is at 418 Third Avenue, City of San Diego. Mow Yuen Quong operated several businesses at the location from 1889-1928. Reference: Tajiuna 2012.

Roseville Chinese Fishing Village, San Diego County.
Roseville Chinese Fishing Village, across the bay from San Diego Chinatown, grew because of railroad construction along the waterfront next to San Diego Chinatown. Using junks as fishing boats, the fishermen of the village specialized in barracuda. By 1870, they shifted their focus to abalone. Allegations of smuggling countrymen into the area and the banning of some types of fishing technology caused the village to disappear in the 1880's. See San Diego Chinatown, San Diego County. Reference: Armentrout 1981: 147; Horn and Lee 1994: 173; Liu 1977: 45.

San Diego Chinatown, San Diego County.
 San Diego Chinatown began with four rented houses on Third Avenue in 1870, although Chinese first officially appeared in San Diego in 1863. By 1872, it was bounded by Island Avenue, K Street, First Avenue and Third Avenue. By the early 1900's, San Diego Chinatown extended from Market Street and K Street to Second Avenue through Fifth Avenue. In 1887, 17 of 23 laundries were operated by the Chinese. Chinese fishermen had quickly moved into the fishing industry, providing almost all the fresh fish to the city in the 1890's with junks and sampans being the boats of choice. During the same time, some ventured into market gardening. The farms were in Mission Valley and Sweetwater Valley. Crops included carrots, beets, turnips, spinach, peas, beans, parsley, lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, tomatoes, com, radishes, cucumbers and peppers. By the 1960's, little remained of San Diego Chinatown--only a few stores and restaurants. See Almond Blossom Gardens, San Diego County; Roseville Chinese Fishing Village, San Diego County. Reference: Horn and Lee 1994: 173; Liu 1987: 1-12; Liu 1977: 44-45.

San Diego Chinese Center, San Diego County.
San Diego Chinese Center became located in the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association
building at 428 Third Avenue, City of San Diego, in 1970. The center continues to provide social services to include job assistance, referrals, counseling, etc. See Chinese Consolidated
Benevolent Association Building, San Diego County. Reference: Ying 1998: 68
.

San Diego Flume, San Diego County.
Chinese laborers built the San Diego Flume in Cleveland National Forest. Construction started
in 1887 and was completed in 1889. The flume was a fifty mile-long water transfer system
connecting a reservoir (Lake Cuyamaca) and the City of San Diego. The system provided water for the growth of San Diego. Reference: Fritz 1994: 11; Van Wormer 1989: 3.

San Diego Chinese Historical Museum, San Diego County.
San Diego Chinese Historical Museum is at 404 Third Avenue within the Asian Pacific
Thematic Historic District of the City of San Diego. The building was the home of the Chinese
Mission School when it was located at 645 First Avenue
, City of San Diego. Relocated to its
present site, the refurbished structure opened its doors as a museum on January 13, 1996. There is over 2,000 square feet of exhibit space, a seven-foot tall statue of Confucius, a gift from the Republic of China and a Chinese garden and stream that provide accent to the exterior of the building. The goal of the museum is to present the Chinese historical heritage and artistic culture. See Asian/Pacific Historic Thematic District, San Diego County; Chinese Mission School, San Diego County; San Diego Chinatown, San Diego County. Reference: "San Diego Chinese Historical Museum" 1999: 1-2;
News and Notes 1996: 3.

San Jacinto Chinese Business Area, San Diego County.
The Chinese business area in the town of San Jacinto was on the north side of Fifth Street
between San Jacinto Avenue and Sheriff Avenue. It contained two laundries in May, 1888.
Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1888.

Senior Garden Apartments, San Diego County.
Senior Garden Apartments is located at 438 Third Avenue, City of San Diego. Consisting of 45
units, it is low rent housing for low income seniors. The four-story building has a central
courtyard and community room. The development is a joint effort between the Chinese
Consolidated Benevolent Association, government agencies and privates companies. Reference: 
Low 1999.

Sorrento Grade, San Diego County.
During the early 1880's, the Chinese made several cuts through the hills in the area around
Sorrento for the California Southern Railroad right-of-way. The cuts were as much as 50 feet
deep in places and some 200 feet in length. Sorrento Grade illustrates how hard the rock can be: pick axe marks in the hill's sedimentary rock are still evident
. See Temecula Chinatown,
Riverside County. Reference: Middlebrook 1964: 10

Sweetwater Dam, San Diego County.
Chinese provided the labor for the construction of Sweetwater Dam, east of National City. It is
part of the San Diego Wat
er System. Construction began in 1887 with 50 Chinese clearing brush. Anti-Chinese sentiment soon broke out with the camp of 28 Chinese workers being destroyed by a mob of non-Chinese. However, construction continued, concluding in 1889. The dam is considered to be the first modem high dam in the county. Reference: Fritz 1994: 11.

Tourmaline Queen Mine, San Diego County.
The mineral tourmaline was highly prized in China. Thus, Chinese miners sought it from the area of Pala and Julian to the Mexican border. The Tourmaline Queen Mine itself was reportedly owned by the Empress Dowager of China in the early 1880's. Reference: Fritz 1994: 6; Stein 1975: 141.

Woo Chee Chong Store, San Diego County.
Woo Chee Chong Store was a grocery store next door to Gim Wing Store in San Diego
Chinatown. Woo Chee Chong opened in 1899
, a year after Gim Wing. Woo Chee Chong is still
in business and has three other outlets. See Gim Wing Store
, San Diego County. Reference: Fung 1989: 17. 

Ying On Laborers and Merchants Benevolent Association Building, San Diego County.
Ying On Laborers and Merchants Benevolent Association building was part of early San Diego
Chinatown as was the association itself. The building is eligible for entry in the National Registry of Historic Places
. Reference: Asian Pacific Thematic Historic District 1999: 1.

Santa Barbara County

China Camp, Santa Barbara County.
China Camp, near Paradise Store, was the home for the Chinese who constructed the Santa 
Ynez Turnpike Road. Built in 1868, the road connected the coast with interior valleys. The steep terrain caused the workers to literally carve steps into the sandstone so that the horses pulling stage coaches and wagons could maintain a foothold. Although no longer used, the roadway parallels today's Highway 150 in many places. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1980a.

Guadalupe Chinatown, Santa Barbara County.
Guadalupe Chinatown, in the railroad community of Guadalupe still flourished in 1918. It was
on the east side of Guadalupe Street near Fourth Street
. The Chinese residents worked as
laborers
, cooks and service personnel throughout Guadalupe. Reference: Krieger 1995: B I-B2.

High Lung First Class Laundry, Santa Barbara County.
High Lung First Class Laundry, located in an adobe building at 15 Carrillo Street, City of Santa
Barbara, operated for over
100 years. An attempt at restoration of the structure revealed many
Chinese artifacts
. They are maintained by the Chinese Historical Society of Southern California. See Los Angeles Chinatown Heritage and Visitors Center, Los Angeles County. ReferenceGreenwood 1995: 43. 

Kuomingtang Headquarters Building, Santa Barbara County.
The building at 834 Santa Barbara Street, City of Santa Barbara, was located in the center of Santa Barbara Chinatown. Built for J. F. Moullet in 1896, it became the headquarters of the Kuomingtang (Nationalist Chinese Party) in 1932. Although the organization ceased to function because of a lack of membership, the Chinese continued to use the building until 1955. See Santa Barbara Chinatown, Santa Barbara County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1978a.

Lompoc Chinese Business Area, Santa Barbara County.
The Lompoc Chinese business area in the town of Lompoc was on the east side of I Street between Ocean Avenue and Cypress Avenue. In 1891, there were two laundries. The number increased to three by 1895. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1891b, 1895.

Los Alamos Chinese Business Area, Santa Barbara County.
The Chinese business area of the town of Los Alamos was in the alley between Main Street and Bell Street. It was bounded by St. Joseph Street and Centennial Street. There were two laundries there in 1886. Reference: Sanborn Insurance Map 1886a.

Santa Barbara Chinatown, Santa Barbara County.
Arriving in Santa Barbara as early as 1860, the Chinese worked as farm laborers and particularly as cooks, bus boys and waiters in the major hotel of the town. By 1885, Santa Barbara Chinatown was evident along the first block of East Canon Perdido Street. Its population increased when Chinese railroad workers constructed the rail link between Santa Barbara and the Saugus Junction in 1887. By the 1890's, almost all of the servants, laundrymen, and vegetable gardeners within the city were Chinese. In 1894, the Santa Barbara Chinatown consisted of seventeen general merchandise/grocery stores, three residences, a temple, one tong, two barber shops, a restaurant, an employment office, six opium establishments, one gambling hall and an opera house. The demise of Santa Barbara Chinatown began in 1925 with a conflict between two tongs. The last building was destroyed in 1937 as part of an urban renewal program. See High Lung First Class Laundry, Santa Barbara County; Kuomingtang Headquarters Building, Santa Barbara County; Santa Barbara Joss House, Santa Barbara County. Reference: Bentz 1997: 133- 134; Office of Historic Preservation 1980a, 1978b; Raven 1987: 232.

Santa Barbara Joss House, Santa Barbara County.
 Santa Barbara Joss House, 25 East Canon Perdido Street, City of Santa Barbara, formed the 
center of Santa Barbara Chinatown. Destroyed in the late 1920s or early 1930's, the last major
relic of the joss house
, a gold-leaf, hand-carved shrine made in China in 1899, is in the Santa
Barbara Historical Museum
. See Santa Barbara Chinatown, Santa Barbara County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1978.

Ventura County

China Alley, Ventura County.
(1) China Alley was the main street of Oxnard Chinatown. See Oxnard Chinatown, Ventura
County.
  (2) The official name for China Alley in the City of Ventura was Chinese Alley. See Chinese
  Alley, Ventura County.

China Flat, Ventura County.
China Flat is a high plateau covered with oak-woodlands within the Santa Monica National
Recreation Area. It was very difficult for most people to find. As a result, it became a place to
hide illegal Chinese immigrants who were put ashore along the nearby coast during the
Exclusion Act
. See Catalina Island, Channel Islands. Reference: Anderson 1997; "Hope:
Transfer of 5,700 Acres in Wilds." 1990; United States Geological Survey 1952.

Chinese Alley, Ventura County.
Chinese Alley appears as a street name within the Ventura Chinatown on a Sanborn Insurance
Map dated 1892. See Siu Mow Gong, Ventura County. Reference
: Greenwood 1984: 4. Photo.

Hong Quong Dormitory, Ventura County.
Hong Quong Dormitory is on the grounds of Thacher School in the town of Ojai. Built in 1933,
the structure was the residence of the school's cook and janitor
, Lee Quong. It was converted into
a student dormitory in 1961
, acquiring its current name. Apparently the word Hong was added
as a play on words. Thacher School had employed Chinese in various capacities by 1894.
Reference: Office of Historic Preservation, n.d.

Oxnard Chinatown, Ventura County.
Oxnard Chinatown was located between Oxnard Boulevard and A Street and Sixth Street and
Eighth Street, City of Oxnard. It prospered from the late 1800's to the late 1940's. At its peak, its
population numbered around 600, mostly agricultural workers. The community consisted of
wood- frame buildings, two restaurants, one saloon, barber shop
, pool room, grocery stores, a fire
department and gambling places. Erie Stanley Gardner, an attorney in nearby City of Ventura and
author of the Perry Mason stories, often represented Chinese arrested on gambling charges. See
China Alley, Ventura County; Plaza Park Pagoda, Ventura County. Reference
: Jennings 1984:
25-29.

Peking Street, Ventura County.
By 1905-1906, most of the buildings of Ventura Chinatown were either razed or relocated to the
north side of Main Street near Ventura Avenue in the City of Ventura. Apparently a few Chinese
resettled further west on Main Street, forming a small settlement around today's Peking Street
.
The settlement was destroyed with the construction of Highway 33. See Siu Mow Gong, Ventura
County. Reference: Office of Historic Preservation 1980b.

Plaza Park Pagoda, Ventura County.
Plaza Park Pagoda is at Fifth Street and C Street in the City of Oxnard. It is often thought to have
been built by or pertain to the Chinese
. Yet, that is not so. In fact, it was constructed by the city
in March, 1910. The purpose of the structure was to house a motorized pump used to bring water
from below ground. When the water supply ended
, the city had the roof raised and a platform
added, giving it a pagoda-like appearance
. The platform lent itself to being used for civic
celebrations. Because of platform access problems and current fire and building safety codes, it  is not in use today. The pagoda was designated a Ventura County Landmark in June, 1971. Reference: Reynolds 1985: 1-3. Photo.

Siu Mow Gong, Ventura County.
Siu Mow Gong was the Chinese name for Ventura Chinatown. See Ventura Chinatown, Ventura County.

Ventura Chinatown, Ventura County.
Ventura Chinatown was known as Siu Mow Gong because most of its inhabitants were from Mow Gong Village in the Guangdong Province of China. By 1876, there were about 200 Chinese in the four block area centered on West Main and Figueroa Street, City of Ventura. The geographic limitation was imposed by city ordinance. Along with residences, the Chinatown contained a Kuan Yun (Kwan Kung) temple, general store, restaurant and a fire brigade. The brigade lasted until the early 1900s. The only remaining structure associated with the Chinese in the city is the Ortega Adobe. The adobe was owned by Sing Hing who gave it to the city. It was eventually given historic landmark status-not as a reminder of the Chinese but as the site of a more recent Mexican food company. Reference: Greenwood 1984: 1-10; Jennings 1984: 25-29Photo.

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